Tuesday, July 24, 2007

Backup & Recovery 9

This release complies with Optimal
Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines.
All subdirectories are not under a top
level ORACLE_HOME directory. There is a
top level directory called ORACLE_BASE
that by default is C:\oracle. If you
install the latest Oracle release on a
computer with no other Oracle software
installed, then the default setting for the
first Oracle home directory is
C:\oracle\orann, where nn is the
latest release number. The Oracle home
directory is located directly under
ORACLE_BASE.
All directory path examples in this guide
follow OFA conventions.
Refer to Oracle9i Database Getting Started
for Windows for additional information
about OFA compliances and for
information about installing Oracle
products in non-OFA compliant
directories.
Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_
HOME\rdbms\admin directory.
Convention Meaning Example
xx
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xxi
What’s New in User-Managed Backup and
Recovery?
This chapter describes the new user-managed backup and recovery features of
Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) and provides pointers to additional information. New
features information from previous releases is also retained to help those users
migrating to the current release.
The following sections describe the new features in user-managed backup and
recovery:
n Oracle9i New Features in User-Managed Backup and Recovery
n Oracle8i New Features in User-Managed Backup and Recovery
xxii
Oracle9i New Features in User-Managed Backup and Recovery
This section contains these topics:
n Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) New Features in User-Managed Backup and Recovery
n Oracle9i Release 1 (9.0.1) New Features in User-Managed Backup and
Recovery
Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) New Features in User-Managed Backup and
Recovery
Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) includes the following new features for backup and
recovery that improve database availability and manageability.
n Redo Log Parallelism
This feature allows server processes to generate redo in parallel, thereby
increasing the throughput of update-intensive workloads. When the parallel
redo feature is enabled, Oracle generates redo logs in a new format. Releases
prior to Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) cannot apply redo logs in this new format.
Hence, if you are attempting to apply parallel logs in a release prior to Oracle9i
Release 2 (9.2), then you must temporarily upgrade to Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2),
recover the database, and then downgrade to the prior release.
Oracle9i Release 1 (9.0.1) New Features in User-Managed Backup and
Recovery
Oracle9i Release 1 (9.0.1) includes the following new features for backup and
recovery that improve database availability and manageability.
n Batch Termination of Backup Mode
The ALTER DATABASE END BACKUP statement takes all datafiles currently in
backup mode out of backup mode. The purpose of this feature is to allow a
crash recovery script to restart a database without intervention even though the
failure occurred during an online backup. Previously, if the database crashed
during an online backup, then each tablespace has to be taken out of backup
mode individually, or media recovery had to be performed on the database.
See Also: "About User-Managed Media Recovery Problems" on
page 5-2 to learn how to troubleshoot parallel redo problems, and
Oracle9i Database Performance Tuning Guide and Reference to learn
how to enable and disable the feature
xxiii
n Database Can Be Opened After Media Recovery Problem
If database media recovery encounters a problem, Oracle stops and leaves the
database in a consistent state. You can then open the database read-only or with
the RESTLOGS options.
n Trial Recovery
The SQL*Plus RECOVER ... TEST statement can perform a trial recovery in
memory without affecting the physical database. This feature enables you to
test backup and recovery strategies without actually applying changes to the
files on disk. Also, if you are troubleshooting media recovery problems, trial
recovery lets you foresee what problems might occur if you were to continue
with normal recovery.
n Recovery Through Media Recovery Problems
Use the RECOVER statement with the ALLOW ... CORRUPTION clause to permit
recovery to corrupt blocks during datafile media recovery. After recovery
completes, you can use RMAN to perform block media recovery on the
corrupted blocks. Hence, this feature can shorten recovery time and increase
database availability.
n Multiple Conversion Pairs for *_FILE_NAME_CONVERT Parameters
You can specify multiple conversion pairs in the DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT
and LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT initialization parameters.
n LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n Supports Up to 10 Locations
The LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n initialization parameter can archive to up to 10
locations.
See Also: "Ending a Backup After an Instance Failure or
SHUTDOWN ABORT" on page 2-11
See Also: "About User-Managed Media Recovery Problems" on
page 5-2
See Also: "Performing Trial Recovery" on page 5-9
See Also: Chapter 5, "Troubleshooting User-Managed Media
Recovery"
xxiv
Oracle8i New Features in User-Managed Backup and Recovery
This section contains these topics:
n Oracle8i Release 2 (8.1.6) New Features in User-Managed Backup and
Recovery
n Oracle8i Release 1 (8.1.5) New Features in User-Managed Backup and
Recovery
Oracle8i Release 2 (8.1.6) New Features in User-Managed Backup and
Recovery
Oracle8i Release 2 (8.1.6) contains a number of internal improvements that provide
more robust protection against data corruption.
n Protection Against Logical Corruption
Logical data corruptions are typically caused by application errors and are
difficult to repair because these corruptions are in the redo logs. You can
prevent most logical corruptions by enabling block checking, which can detect
and roll back changes that corrupt the database. Block checking is improved in
these ways:
– Oracle checks more block types, such as rollback segment blocks,
transaction table blocks, and segment header blocks.
– Block checking is more efficient, checking more blocks without increasing
system overhead.
– Block checking is always turned on for the SYSTEM tablespace, regardless of
the setting of the DB_BLOCK_CHECKING initialization parameter.
n Protection Against Memory Corruptions
If block checking is turned on, then the database writer process performs block
checking immediately before writing a block to disk. This check enables Oracle
to catch some corruptions when they are still in memory and automatically
repair corrupted blocks before they are written to disk.
n Protection Against Physical Data Corruption
Typically, Oracle detects physical I/O corruptions by storing a checksum in
each data block. Oracle release 8.1.6 always performs checksum calculations in
See Also: "Listing Database Files Before a Backup" on page 2-2,
and "About User-Managed Restore Operations" on page 3-2
xxv
the SYSTEM tablespace, regardless of the DB_BLOCK_CHECKSUM parameter
setting.
If the calculated checksum does not match the stored checksum when Oracle
reads the control file or redo logs, then Oracle rereads the data from either a
different log or the same member in more situations than previous Oracle
releases. Hence, Oracle has a second chance to find a good copy of the data and
repair any physical data corruption.
Oracle8i Release 1 (8.1.5) New Features in User-Managed Backup and
Recovery
The following backup and recovery features are new in release 8.1.5:
n Backups with the SUSPEND/RESUME Feature
You can temporarily suspend and then resume database operations without
shutting down the database. While the database is suspended, you can make
online backups of split mirrors.
n TSPITR Supports Transportable Tablespaces
You can use transportable tablespaces to perform tablespace point-in-time
recovery (TSPITR).
n LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n Initialization Parameter
The LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n (where n is an integer from 1 to 5) initialization
parameter can archive to up to 5 locations.
See Also: see "Making User-Managed Backups in SUSPEND
Mode" on page 2-16
See Also: "Performing TSPITR with Transportable Tablespaces"
on page 7-14
xxvi
Introduction to User-Managed Backup and Recovery 1-1
1
Introduction to User-Managed Backup and
Recovery
This chapter introduces database concepts that are fundamental to user-managed
backup and recovery.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n About User-Managed Backup and Recovery
n Why Use User-Managed Backup and Recovery Methods?
n Overview of User-Managed Backup and Recovery
See Also: Oracle9i Backup and Recovery Concepts for a conceptual
overview of essential backup and recovery concepts
About User-Managed Backup and Recovery
1-2 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
About User-Managed Backup and Recovery
User-managed backup and recovery is any strategy in which Recovery Manager
(RMAN) is not used as the principal backup and recovery tool. The basic
user-managed backup strategy is to make periodic backups of datafiles and
archived logs with operating system commands.
The basic user-managed procedure for recovering from a media failure is as follows:
1. Restore database file backups with operating system commands.
2. Recover restored datafiles with the SQL*Plus RECOVER statement.
3. If the database is closed, then open it for normal use; if it is open, then bring the
recovered tablespaces back online.
Why Use User-Managed Backup and Recovery Methods?
Oracle Corporation recommends using RMAN as the foundation of an enterprise
backup and recovery strategy, but user-managed methods (that is, methods that do
not involve RMAN) are also just as effective. Note that some features such as block
media recovery can only be performed with RMAN.
The following are possible circumstances in which you may choose to employ
user-managed methods rather than use RMAN:
n You are migrating from an older version of the database to the current version
and do not immediately want to update your legacy backup scripts.
n You maintain a network containing Oracle7 and later databases and want a
single backup and recovery method to handle all databases in the same way.
RMAN only supports Oracle databases of release 8.0 or greater.
n All your RMAN backup are lost and you are forced to restore user-managed
backups and perform recovery with the SQL*Plus RECOVER command.
Oracle Corporation supports user-managed backup and recovery as a viable
alternative to RMAN.
Overview of User-Managed Backup and Recovery
Introduction to User-Managed Backup and Recovery 1-3
Overview of User-Managed Backup and Recovery
This section contains these topics:
n About User-Managed Backups
n About User-Managed Restore and Recovery
About User-Managed Backups
User-managed backups can be either logical or physical. You can use the Export
utility to make backups of logical objects such as tables, views, and stored
procedures, and use the Import utility to restore these objects.
If you do not use RMAN, then you can use operating system utilities to make
physical backups. A physical backup is a backup of an Oracle database file or
archived redo log located on the operating system. Note that these files can either be
manually-managed database files or Oracle-managed files. If you use the Oracle
Managed Files feature, then Oracle names the files for you and also deletes them for
you when you drop a tablespace. From the point of view of backup and recovery,
Oracle managed files are no different from user-managed files.
The following table illustrates the main types of physical backups and the
non-RMAN methods for performing these backups.
Backup Object Backup Method Example
Datafiles Operating system utility % cp df3.f df3.bak
Archived logs Operating system utility % cp log_1_23.arc log_1_23.bak
Control files SQL statement SQL> ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO cf1.bak
Initialization
parameter file
SQL statement SQL> CREATE PFILE = init.ora.bak FROM SPFILE;
Network and
password files
Operating system utility % cp tnsnames.ora tnsnames.bak
C:\> copy tnsnames.ora tnsnames.bak
Logical objects
(tables, indexes,
PL/SQL units)
Export utility % export SYSTEM/manager TABLE=hr.emp FILE=emp.dmp
Overview of User-Managed Backup and Recovery
1-4 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Basic Backup Methodology
The basic method for taking user-managed backups of the whole database is as
follows:
1. Identify the datafiles, control files, and archived redo logs to be backed up by
querying dynamic performance views or data dictionary tables (refer to
"Querying V$ Views to Obtain Backup Information" on page 2-2 for
procedures).
2. Use an operating system command such as the UNIX cp command to back up
datafiles and archived redo logs (refer to "Making User-Managed Backups of
the Whole Database" on page 2-4 for procedures).
3. Use a SQL statement to back up the control file (refer to "Making User-Managed
Backups of the Control File" on page 2-19 for procedures).
4. Use an operating system command such as the UNIX cp command to back up
configuration files (refer to"Making User-Managed Backups of Miscellaneous
Oracle Files" on page 2-29 for procedures).
Consistent and Inconsistent User-Managed Backups
You can use RMAN or operating system commands to make an inconsistent
backup or a consistent backup. An inconsistent backup is a backup of one or more
database files made while the database is open or after the database has not been
shut down normally. A consistent backup is a backup of one or more database files
that you make after the database has been shut down normally. Unlike an
inconsistent backup, a consistent backup does not require recovery after it is
restored.
A consistent whole database backup is the only valid backup option for databases
running in NOARCHIVELOG mode, because otherwise redo needed for recovery is
See Also:
n Oracle9i Database Utilities to learn how to use the Export and
Import utilities
n Oracle9i Database Administrator’s Guide to learn about Oracle
Managed Files
Caution: Do not back up online redo logs. If you reset the online
logs after media recovery, and then accidentally apply the backed
up logs to the database, then you can corrupt the database.
Overview of User-Managed Backup and Recovery
Introduction to User-Managed Backup and Recovery 1-5
not available. In NOARCHIVELOG mode, Oracle overwrites redo records without
archiving them first.
If you run the database in ARCHIVELOG mode, then you can back up database files
while the database is open. These backups are inconsistent, but as long as you have
the necessary archived redo logs you can recover these backups. You can either take
a tablespace offline and back up its datafiles, or perform an online backup. An
online backup occurs when the tablespace is still online. To perform an online
backup, you must begin and end the backup with SQL statements that place the
tablespace in and take the tablespace out of backup mode.
Backups in SUSPEND Mode
Some third-party tools allow you to mirror a set of disks or logical devices, that is,
maintain an exact duplicate of the primary data in another location, and then split
the mirror. Splitting the mirror involves separating the copies so that you can use
them independently.
Using the SUSPEND/RESUME functionality, you can suspend I/O to the database,
then split the mirror and make a backup of the split mirror. By using this feature,
which complements the online backup functionality, you can quiesce the database
so that no new I/O can be performed. You can then access the suspended database
to make backups without I/O interference.
Verification of Backups
The best method for backup verification is to perform a test restore and recover of
the database to another location. If you successfully perform this operation, then
you know that the backup is valid.
You can also use the DBVERIFY utility to test backups for corruption. DBVERIFY is
an external command-line utility that performs a physical data structure integrity
check on offline datafiles. Use DBVERIFY primarily when you need to ensure that a
See Also:
n "Making Consistent Whole Database Backups" on page 2-4
n "Making User-Managed Backups of Offline Tablespaces and
Datafiles" on page 2-6
n "Making User-Managed Backups of Online Tablespaces and
Datafiles" on page 2-7
See Also: "About the Suspend/Resume Feature" on page 2-16
Overview of User-Managed Backup and Recovery
1-6 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
backup datafile is valid before it is restored or as a diagnostic aid when you have
encountered data corruption problems. The name and location of DBVERIFY is
dependent on your operating system (for example, dbv on Sun/Sequent systems).
About User-Managed Restore and Recovery
When a media failure occurs that damages datafiles, you must restore backups of
the affected datafiles using operating system commands and then perform recovery
with the SQL*Plus RECOVER command. You can either restore only some datafiles
and perform recovery of the tablespaces containing the restored datafiles, or restore
and recover the entire database. You should keep careful records of your backups so
that you know the original locations of the datafiles as well as the locations of the
backups.
To begin media recovery operations when your database is running in
ARCHIVELOG mode, use the SQL*Plus RECOVER command. The two basic types of
media recovery are complete recovery, in which all redo generated on the database
is applied, and incomplete recovery, in which not all the existing redo is applied.
Incomplete recovery is only valid for restore and recovery of the entire database. A
special procedure for performing incomplete recovery of an individual tablespace is
called tablespace point-in-time recovery (TSPITR).
Basic Restore and Recovery Methodology
The basic user-managed restore and recovery strategy is as follows:
1. Determine what you need to restore and recover (refer to "Determining Which
Datafiles Require Recovery" on page 3-5 for procedures).
2. Restore backups of files permanently damaged by media failure by using an
operating system utility. If you cannot restore a datafile to its original location,
then relocate the restored datafile and change the location in the control file
(refer to "Restoring Datafiles" on page 3-6 for procedures).
3. Restore any necessary archived redo log files with an operating system utility
(refer to "Restoring Archived Redo Logs" on page 3-15 for procedures).
4. Use the SQL*Plus RECOVER command to recover the files, as described in
"Performing User-Managed Media Recovery: Overview" on page 4-2.
See Also: "Verifying User-Managed Backups" on page 2-27
Overview of User-Managed Backup and Recovery
Introduction to User-Managed Backup and Recovery 1-7
Implications of the Archiving Mode for Media Recovery
The archiving mode of the database determines the type of recovery that you can
perform. For example, if a database is in NOARCHIVELOG mode and a media failure
damages some or all of the datafiles, then usually the only option for recovery is to
restore the most recent consistent, whole database backup and open it.
The disadvantage of NOARCHIVELOG mode is that to recover the database from the
time of the most recent full backup up to the time of the media failure, you have to
reenter manually all of the changes executed in that interval. If your database is in
ARCHIVELOG mode, and the redo logs covering this interval are available as
archived log files or online log files, then you can use complete or incomplete
recovery to reconstruct your database, thereby minimizing the number of lost
changes.
User-Managed Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery (TSPITR)
User-managed tablespace point-in-time recovery (TSPITR) enables you to quickly
recover one or more tablespaces (other than the SYSTEM tablespace) to a time that is
different from that of the rest of the database.
User-managed TSPITR is most useful for recovering the following:
n An erroneous DROP TABLE or TRUNCATE TABLE operation.
n A table that is logically corrupted.
n An incorrect batch job or other DML statement that has affected only a subset of
the database.
n A logical schema to a point different from the rest of the physical database
when multiple schemas exist in separate tablespaces of one physical database.
n A tablespace in a VLDB (very large database) when TSPITR is more efficient
than restoring the whole database from a backup and rolling it forward (see
"Preparing for Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery: Basic Steps" on page 7-4
before making any decisions).
See Also: Chapter 7, "Performing User-Managed TSPITR"
Overview of User-Managed Backup and Recovery
1-8 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Making User-Managed Backups 2-1
2
Making User-Managed Backups
If you do not use Recovery Manager (RMAN), then you can make backups of your
database files using user-managed methods.
This chapter contains the following sections:
n Querying V$ Views to Obtain Backup Information
n Making User-Managed Backups of the Whole Database
n Making User-Managed Backups of Offline Tablespaces and Datafiles
n Making User-Managed Backups of Online Tablespaces and Datafiles
n Making User-Managed Backups in SUSPEND Mode
n Making User-Managed Backups of the Control File
n Making User-Managed Backups of Archived Redo Logs
n Making User-Managed Backups to Raw Devices
n Verifying User-Managed Backups
n Making Logical Backups with Export
n Making User-Managed Backups of Miscellaneous Oracle Files
Querying V$ Views to Obtain Backup Information
2-2 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Querying V$ Views to Obtain Backup Information
Before making a backup, identify all the files in your database. Then, ascertain what
you need to back up.
This section contains these topics:
n Listing Database Files Before a Backup
n Determining Datafile Status for Online Tablespace Backups
Listing Database Files Before a Backup
Before beginning a backup, query the database to determine which files you should
back up. Note that backups of Oracle Managed Files are not different from backups
of database files that you name manually.
To list datafiles, online redo logs, and control files:
1. Start SQL*Plus and query V$DATAFILE to obtain a list of datafiles. For
example, enter:
SQL> SELECT NAME FROM V$DATAFILE;
You can also join the V$TABLESPACE and V$DATAFILE views to obtain a
listing of datafiles along with their associated tablespaces:
SELECT t.NAME "Tablespace", f.NAME "Datafile"
FROM V$TABLESPACE t, V$DATAFILE f
WHERE t.TS# = f.TS#
ORDER BY t.NAME;
2. Obtain the filenames of online redo log files by querying the V$LOGFILE view.
For example, issue the following query:
SQL> SELECT MEMBER FROM V$LOGFILE;
3. Obtain the filenames of the current control files by querying the
V$CONTROLFILE view. For example, issue the following query:
SQL> SELECT NAME FROM V$CONTROLFILE;
Note that you only need to back up one copy of a multiplexed control file.
4. If you plan to take a control file backup with the ALTER DATABASE BACKUP
CONTROLFILE TO 'filename' statement, then save a list of all datafiles and
online redo log files with the control file backup. Because the current database
structure may not match the database structure at the time a given control file
Querying V$ Views to Obtain Backup Information
Making User-Managed Backups 2-3
backup was created, saving a list of files recorded in the backup control file can
aid the recovery procedure.
Determining Datafile Status for Online Tablespace Backups
To check whether a datafile is part of a current online tablespace backup, query the
V$BACKUP view. This view is useful only for user-managed online tablespace
backups, not offline tablespace backups or RMAN backups.
The V$BACKUP view is most useful when the database is open. It is also useful
immediately after an instance failure because it shows the backup status of the files
at the time of the failure. Use this information to determine whether you have left
any tablespaces in backup mode.
V$BACKUP is not useful if the control file currently in use is a restored backup or a
new control file created after the media failure occurred. A restored or re-created
control file does not contain the information Oracle needs to fill V$BACKUP
accurately. Also, if you have restored a backup of a file, this file's STATUS in
V$BACKUP reflects the backup status of the older version of the file, not the most
current version. Thus, this view can contain misleading data about restored files.
For example, the following query displays which datafiles are currently included in
a tablespace that has been placed in backup mode:
SELECT t.name AS "TB_NAME", d.file# as "DF#", d.name AS "DF_NAME", b.status
FROM V$DATAFILE d, V$TABLESPACE t, V$BACKUP b
WHERE d.TS#=t.TS#
AND b.FILE#=d.FILE#
AND b.STATUS=’ACTIVE’
/
Sample output follows:
TB_NAME DF# DF_NAME STATUS
---------------------- ---------- ---------------------- ------------------
TBS_1 3 /oracle/dbs/tbs_11.f ACTIVE
TBS_1 4 /oracle/dbs/tbs_12.f ACTIVE
In the STATUS column, NOT ACTIVE indicates that the file is not currently in
backup mode (that is, ALTER TABLESPACE ... BEGIN BACKUP), whereas ACTIVE
indicates that the file is currently in backup mode.
Making User-Managed Backups of the Whole Database
2-4 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Making User-Managed Backups of the Whole Database
You can make a whole database backup of all files in a database after the database
has been shut down with the NORMAL, IMMEDIATE, or TRANSACTIONAL options. A
whole database backup taken while the database is open or after an instance failure
or SHUTDOWN ABORT is inconsistent. In such cases, the files are inconsistent with
respect to the checkpoint SCN.
You can make a whole database backup if a database is operating in either
ARCHIVELOG or NOARCHIVELOG mode. If you run the database in NOARCHIVELOG
mode, however, the backup must be consistent; that is, you must shut down the
database cleanly before the backup.
The set of backup files that results from a consistent whole database backup is
consistent because all files are checkpointed to the same SCN. You can restore the
consistent database backup without performing recovery. After restoring the
backup files, you can perform additional recovery steps to recover the database to a
more current time if the database is operated in ARCHIVELOG mode. Also, you can
take inconsistent whole database backups if your database is in ARCHIVELOG mode.
Control files play a crucial role in database restore and recovery. For databases
running in ARCHIVELOG mode, Oracle recommends that you back up control files
with the ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO 'filename' statement. If
you back up the control file with an operating system utility during a closed,
consistent whole database backup, then you should only use this control file when
restoring the other datafiles taken in the backup. Although a control file backed up
with an operating system utility during a consistent backup can sometimes be used
for recovery (but only if you specify the USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE clause of
the RECOVER statement), Oracle does not recommend this practice because
neglecting to specify the USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE clause can cause recovery
problems.
Making Consistent Whole Database Backups
To guarantee that a database's datafiles are consistent, shut down the database with
the NORMAL, IMMEDIATE, or TRANSACTIONAL options before making a whole
database backup.
See Also: "Making User-Managed Backups of the Control File" on
page 2-19 for more information about backing up control files
Making User-Managed Backups of the Whole Database
Making User-Managed Backups 2-5
To make a consistent whole database backup:
1. If the database is open, use SQL*Plus to shut down the database with the
NORMAL, IMMEDIATE, or TRANSACTIONAL options. For example, do one of the
following:
SQL> SHUTDOWN NORMAL
SQL> SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
SQL> SHUTDOWN TRANSACTIONAL
Do not make a whole database backup when the instance is aborted or stopped
because of a failure. If possible, reopen the database and shut it down cleanly.
2. Use an operating system utility to make backups of all datafiles as well as all
control files specified by the CONTROL_FILES parameter of the initialization
parameter file. Also, back up the initialization parameter file and other Oracle
product initialization files. To find these files, do a search for *.ora starting in
your Oracle home directory and recursively search all of its subdirectories.
For example, you can back up the datafiles and control files in the
/disk1/oracle/dbs directory to /disk2/backup as follows:
% cp /disk1/oracle/dbs/*.dbf /disk2/backup
% cp /disk1/oracle/dbs/*.cf /disk2/backup
% cp /disk1/oracle/network/admin/*.ora /disk2/backup
% cp /disk1/oracle/rdbms/admin/*.ora /disk2/backup
3. Restart the database. For example, enter:
SQL> STARTUP
Caution: If the database is in NOARCHIVELOG mode, then never
perform a whole database backup after an instance fails or is
aborted. This backup is inconsistent and requires recovery to be
made consistent, so unless the needed redo exists in the online redo
logs and these logs are intact, the backup is unusable.
Note: If you are forced to perform a restore operation, you must
restore the control files to all locations specified in the initialization
parameter file. Hence, it is better to make copies of each
multiplexed control file—even if the control files are identical—to
avoid problems at restore time.
Making User-Managed Backups of Offline Tablespaces and Datafiles
2-6 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Making User-Managed Backups of Offline Tablespaces and Datafiles
You can back up all or some of the datafiles of an individual tablespace while the
tablespace is offline. All other tablespaces of the database can remain open and
available for systemwide use. You must have the DBA privilege or have the MANAGE
TABLESPACE system privilege to take tablespaces offline and online.
Note the following guidelines when backing up offline tablespaces:
n You cannot offline the SYSTEM tablespace or a tablespace with active rollback
segments. The following procedure cannot be used for such tablespaces.
n Assume that a table is in tablespace Primary and its index is in tablespace
Index. Taking tablespace Index offline while leaving tablespace Primary
online can cause errors when DML is issued against the indexed tables located
in Primary. The problem only manifests when the access method chosen by the
optimizer needs to access the indexes in the Index tablespace.
To back up offline tablespaces:
1. Before beginning a backup of a tablespace, identify the tablespace's datafiles by
querying the DBA_DATA_FILES view. For example, assume that you want to
back up the users tablespace. Enter the following in SQL*Plus:
SELECT TABLESPACE_NAME, FILE_NAME
FROM SYS.DBA_DATA_FILES
WHERE TABLESPACE_NAME = 'users';
TABLESPACE_NAME FILE_NAME
------------------------------- -------------------
users /oracle/dbs/users.f
In this example, /oracle/dbs/users.f is a fully specified filename
corresponding to the datafile in the users tablespace.
2. Take the tablespace offline using normal priority if possible. Normal priority is
recommended because it guarantees that you can subsequently bring the
tablespace online without the requirement for tablespace recovery. For example,
the following statement takes a tablespace named users offline normally:
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE users OFFLINE NORMAL;
After you take a tablespace offline with normal priority, all datafiles of the
tablespace are closed.
See Also: Oracle9i Database Administrator’s Guide for more
information on starting up and shutting down a database
Making User-Managed Backups of Online Tablespaces and Datafiles
Making User-Managed Backups 2-7
3. Back up the offline datafiles. For example, a UNIX user might enter the
following to back up the datafile users.f:
% cp /disk1/oracle/dbs/users.f /disk2/backup/users.backup
4. Bring the tablespace online. For example, the following statement brings
tablespace users back online:
ALTER TABLESPACE users ONLINE;
After you bring a tablespace online, it is open and available for use.
5. Archive the unarchived redo logs so that the redo required to recover the
tablespace backup is archived. For example, enter:
ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG CURRENT;
Making User-Managed Backups of Online Tablespaces and Datafiles
You can back up all or only specific datafiles of an online tablespace while the
database is open. The procedure differs depending on whether the online
tablespace is read/write or read-only.
This section contains these topics:
n Making User-Managed Backups of Online Read/Write Tablespaces
n Making Multiple User-Managed Backups of Online Read/Write Tablespaces
n Ending a Backup After an Instance Failure or SHUTDOWN ABORT
n Making User-Managed Backups of Read-Only Tablespaces
n Making User-Managed Backups of Undo Tablespaces
Note: If you took the tablespace offline using temporary or
immediate priority, then you cannot bring the tablespace online
unless you perform tablespace recovery.
Note: You should not back up temporary tablespaces.
Making User-Managed Backups of Online Tablespaces and Datafiles
2-8 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Making User-Managed Backups of Online Read/Write Tablespaces
You must put a read/write tablespace in backup mode to make user-managed
datafile backups when the tablespace is online and the database is open. The ALTER
TABLESPACE BEGIN BACKUP statement places a tablespace in backup mode.
Oracle stops recording checkpoints to the datafiles in the tablespace when a
tablespace is in backup mode. Because a block can be partially updated at the very
moment that the operating system backup utility is copying it, Oracle copies whole
changed data blocks into the redo stream while in backup mode. After you take the
tablespace out of backup mode with the ALTER TABLESPACE ... END BACKUP or
ALTER DATABASE END BACKUP statement, Oracle advances the datafile header to
the current database checkpoint.
When you restore a datafile backed up in this way, the datafile header has a record
of the most recent datafile checkpoint that occurred before the online tablespace
backup, not any that occurred during it. As a result, Oracle asks for the appropriate
set of redo log files to apply should recovery be needed. The redo logs contain all
changes required to recover the datafiles and make them consistent.
To back up online read/write tablespaces in an open database:
1. Before beginning a backup of a tablespace, identify all of the datafiles in the
tablespace with the DBA_DATA_FILES data dictionary view. For example,
assume that you want to back up the users tablespace. Enter the following:
SELECT TABLESPACE_NAME, FILE_NAME
FROM SYS.DBA_DATA_FILES
WHERE TABLESPACE_NAME = 'users';
TABLESPACE_NAME FILE_NAME
------------------------------- --------------------
USERS /oracle/dbs/tbs_21.f
USERS /oracle/dbs/tbs_22.f
In this example, /oracle/dbs/tbs_21.f and /oracle/dbs/tbs_22.f are
fully specified filenames corresponding to the datafiles of the users tablespace.
2. Mark the beginning of the online tablespace backup. For example, the following
statement marks the start of an online backup for the tablespace users:
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE users BEGIN BACKUP;
Making User-Managed Backups of Online Tablespaces and Datafiles
Making User-Managed Backups 2-9
3. Back up the online datafiles of the online tablespace with operating system
commands. For example, UNIX users might enter:
% cp /oracle/dbs/tbs_21.f /oracle/backup/tbs_21.backup
% cp /oracle/dbs/tbs_22.f /oracle/backup/tbs_22.backup
4. After backing up the datafiles of the online tablespace, indicate the end of the
online backup by using the SQL statement ALTER TABLESPACE with the END
BACKUP option. For example, the following statement ends the online backup of
the tablespace users:
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE users END BACKUP;
5. Archive the unarchived redo logs so that the redo required to recover the
tablespace backup is archived. For example, enter:
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG CURRENT;
Making Multiple User-Managed Backups of Online Read/Write Tablespaces
When backing up several online tablespaces, you can back them up either serially
or in parallel. Use either of the following procedures depending on your needs.
Caution: If you forget to mark the beginning of an online
tablespace backup, or neglect to assure that the BEGIN BACKUP
statement has completed before backing up an online tablespace,
then the backup datafiles are not useful for subsequent recovery
operations. Attempting to recover such a backup is risky and can
return errors that result in inconsistent data. For example, the
attempted recovery operation can issue a "fuzzy files" warning, and
can lead to an inconsistent database that you cannot open.
Caution: If you forget to take the tablespace out of backup mode,
then Oracle continues to write entire copies of data blocks in this
tablespace to the online redo logs, possibly causing performance
problems. Also, you will receive an ORA-01149 error if you
attempt to shut down the database with the tablespaces still in
backup mode.
Making User-Managed Backups of Online Tablespaces and Datafiles
2-10 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Backing Up Online Tablespaces in Parallel
You can simultaneously put all tablespaces requiring backups in backup mode.
Note that online redo logs can grow large if multiple users are updating these
tablespaces because the redo must contain a copy of each changed data block.
To back up online tablespaces in parallel:
1. Prepare all online tablespaces for backup by issuing all necessary ALTER
TABLESPACE statements at once. For example, put tablespaces ts1, ts2, and
ts3 in backup mode as follows:
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE ts1 BEGIN BACKUP;
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE ts2 BEGIN BACKUP;
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE ts3 BEGIN BACKUP;
2. Back up all files of the online tablespaces. For example, a UNIX user might back
up datafiles with the tbs_ prefix as follows:
% cp /oracle/dbs/tbs_* /oracle/backup
3. Take the tablespaces out of backup mode as in the following example:
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE ts1 END BACKUP;
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE ts2 END BACKUP;
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE ts3 END BACKUP;
4. Archive the unarchived redo logs so that the redo required to recover the
tablespace backups is archived. For example, enter:
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG CURRENT;
Backing Up Online Tablespaces Serially
You can place all tablespaces requiring online backups in backup mode one at a
time. Oracle Corporation recommends the serial backup option because it
minimizes the time between ALTER TABLESPACE ... BEGIN/END BACKUP
statements. During online backups, more redo information is generated for the
tablespace because whole data blocks are copied into the redo log.
To back up online tablespaces serially:
1. Prepare a tablespace for online backup. For example, to put tablespace tbs_1
in backup mode enter the following:
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE tbs_1 BEGIN BACKUP;
2. Back up the datafiles in the tablespace. For example, enter:
% cp /oracle/dbs/tbs_1.f /oracle/backup/tbs_1.bak
Making User-Managed Backups of Online Tablespaces and Datafiles
Making User-Managed Backups 2-11
3. Take the tablespace out of backup mode. For example, enter:
SQL> ALTER TABLESPACE tbs_1 END BACKUP;
4. Repeat this procedure for each remaining tablespace until you have backed up
all the desired tablespaces.
5. Archive the unarchived redo logs so that the redo required to recover the
tablespace backups is archived. For example, enter:
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG CURRENT;
Ending a Backup After an Instance Failure or SHUTDOWN ABORT
This section contains these topics:
n About Instance Failures When Tablespaces are in Backup Mode
n Ending Backup Mode with the ALTER DATABASE END BACKUP Statement
n Ending Backup Mode with the RECOVER Command
About Instance Failures When Tablespaces are in Backup Mode
The following situations can cause a tablespace backup to fail and be incomplete:
n The backup completed, but you did not indicate the end of the online
tablespace backup operation with the ALTER TABLESPACE ... END BACKUP
statement.
n An instance failure or SHUTDOWN ABORT interrupted the backup before you
could complete it.
Whenever crash recovery is required (not instance recovery, because in this case the
datafiles are open already), if a datafile is in backup mode when an attempt is made
to open it, then the system assumes that the file is a restored backup. Oracle will not
open the database until either a recovery command is issued, or the datafile is taken
out of backup mode.
For example, Oracle may display a message such as the following when you run the
STARTUP statement:
ORA-01113: file 12 needs media recovery
ORA-01110: data file 12: '/oracle/dbs/tbs_41.f'
If Oracle indicates that the datafiles for multiple tablespaces require media recovery
because you forgot to end the online backups for these tablespaces, then so long as
Making User-Managed Backups of Online Tablespaces and Datafiles
2-12 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
the database is mounted, running the ALTER DATABASE END BACKUP statement
takes all the datafiles out of backup mode simultaneously.
In high availability situations, and in situations when no DBA is monitoring the
database (for example, in the early morning hours), the requirement for user
intervention is intolerable. Hence, you can write a crash recovery script that does
the following:
1. Mounts the database
2. Runs the ALTER DATABASE END BACKUP statement
3. Runs ALTER DATABASE OPEN, allowing the system to come up automatically
An automated crash recovery script containing ALTER DATABASE END BACKUP is
especially useful in the following situations:
n All nodes in an Oracle Real Application Clusters configuration fail.
n One node fails in a cold failover cluster (that is, a cluster that is not an Oracle
Real Application Cluster in which the secondary node must mount and recover
the database when the first node fails).
Alternatively, you can take the following manual measures after the system fails
with tablespaces in backup mode:
n Recover the database and avoid issuing END BACKUP statements altogether.
n Mount the database, then run ALTER TABLESPACE ... END BACKUP for each
tablespace still in backup mode.
Ending Backup Mode with the ALTER DATABASE END BACKUP Statement
You can run the ALTER DATABASE END BACKUP statement when you have multiple
tablespaces still in backup mode. The primary purpose of this command is to allow
a crash recovery script to restart a failed system without DBA intervention. You can
also perform the following procedure manually.
To take tablespaces out of backup mode simultaneously:
1. Mount but do not open the database. For example, enter:
SQL> STARTUP MOUNT
2. If performing this procedure manually (that is, not as part of a crash recovery
script), query the V$BACKUP view to list the datafiles of the tablespaces that
were being backed up before the database was restarted:
SQL> SELECT * FROM V$BACKUP WHERE STATUS = 'ACTIVE';
Making User-Managed Backups of Online Tablespaces and Datafiles
Making User-Managed Backups 2-13
FILE# STATUS CHANGE# TIME
---------- ------------------ ---------- ---------
12 ACTIVE 20863 25-NOV-00
13 ACTIVE 20863 25-NOV-00
20 ACTIVE 20863 25-NOV-00
3 rows selected.
3. Issue the ALTER DATABASE END BACKUP statement to take all datafiles
currently in backup mode out of backup mode. For example, enter:
SQL> ALTER DATABASE END BACKUP;
You can use this statement only when the database is mounted but not open. If
the database is open, use ALTER TABLESPACE ... END BACKUP or ALTER
DATABASE DATAFILE ... END BACKUP for each affected tablespace or datafile.
Ending Backup Mode with the RECOVER Command
The ALTER DATABASE END BACKUP statement is not the only way to respond to a
failed online backup: you can also run the RECOVER command. This method is
useful when you are not sure whether someone has restored a backup, because if
someone has indeed restored a backup, then the RECOVER command brings the
backup up to date. Only run the ALTER DATABASE END BACKUP or ALTER
TABLESPACE ... END BACKUP statement if you are sure that the files are current.
To take tablespaces out of backup mode with the RECOVER command:
1. Mount the database. For example, enter:
SQL> STARTUP MOUNT
2. Recover the database as normal. For example, enter:
SQL> RECOVER DATABASE
3. Use the V$BACKUP view to confirm that there are no active datafiles:
SQL> SELECT * FROM V$BACKUP WHERE STATUS = 'ACTIVE';
Caution: Do not use ALTER DATABASE END BACKUP if you have
restored any of the affected files from a backup.
Note: The RECOVER command method is slow because Oracle
must scan redo generated from the beginning of the online backup.
Making User-Managed Backups of Online Tablespaces and Datafiles
2-14 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
FILE# STATUS CHANGE# TIME
---------- ------------------ ---------- ---------
0 rows selected.
Making User-Managed Backups of Read-Only Tablespaces
When backing up an online read-only tablespace, you can simply back up the
online datafiles. You do not have to place the tablespace in backup mode because
the system is permitting changes to the datafiles.
If the set of read-only tablespaces is self-contained, then in addition to backing up
the tablespaces with operating system commands, you can also export the
tablespace metadata by using the transportable tablespace functionality. In the
event of a media error or a user error (such as accidentally dropping a table in the
read-only tablespace), you can transport the tablespace back into the database.
To back up online read-only tablespaces in an open database:
1. Query the DBA_TABLESPACES view to determine which tablespaces are
read-only. For example, run this query:
SELECT TABLESPACE_NAME, STATUS
FROM DBA_TABLESPACES
WHERE STATUS = ’READ ONLY’;
2. Before beginning a backup of a read-only tablespace, identify all of the
tablespace's datafiles by querying the DBA_DATA_FILES data dictionary view.
For example, assume that you want to back up the history tablespace. Enter
the following:
SELECT TABLESPACE_NAME, FILE_NAME
FROM SYS.DBA_DATA_FILES
WHERE TABLESPACE_NAME = 'HISTORY';
TABLESPACE_NAME FILE_NAME
------------------------------- --------------------
HISTORY /oracle/dbs/tbs_hist1.f
HISTORY /oracle/dbs/tbs_hist2.f
See Also: Chapter 4, "Performing User-Managed Media
Recovery" for information on recovering a database
See Also: Oracle9i Database Administrator’s Guide to learn how to
transport tablespaces
Making User-Managed Backups of Online Tablespaces and Datafiles
Making User-Managed Backups 2-15
In this example, /oracle/dbs/tbs_hist1.f and /oracle/dbs/tbs_
hist2.f are fully specified filenames corresponding to the datafiles of the
history tablespace.
3. Back up the online datafiles of the read-only tablespace with operating system
commands. You do not have to take the tablespace offline or put the tablespace
in backup mode because users are automatically prevented from making
changes to the read-only tablespace. For example, UNIX users can enter:
% cp /oracle/dbs/tbs_hist*.f /backup
4. Optionally, export the metadata in the read-only tablespace. By using the
transportable tablespace feature, you can quickly restore the datafiles and
import the metadata in case of media failure or user error. For example, export
the metadata for tablespace history as follows:
% exp TRANSPORT_TABLESPACE=y TABLESPACES=(history) FILE=/oracle/backup/tbs_hist.dmp
Making User-Managed Backups of Undo Tablespaces
In releases prior to Oracle9i, undo space management was based on rollback
segments. This method is called manual undo management mode. In Oracle9i, you
have the option of placing the database in automatic undo management mode.
With this design, you allocate undo space in a single undo tablespace instead of
distributing space into a set of statically allocated rollback segments.
The procedures for backing up undo tablespaces are exactly the same as for backing
up any other read/write tablespace. Because the automatic undo tablespace is so
important for recovery and for read consistency, you should back it up frequently as
you would for tablespaces containing rollback segments when running in manual
undo management mode.
If the datafiles in the undo tablespace were lost while the database was open, and
you did not have a backup, you could receive error messages when querying
Note: When restoring a backup of a read-only tablespace, take the
tablespace offline, restore the datafiles, then bring the tablespace
online. A backup of a read-only tablespace is still usable if the
read-only tablespace is made read/write after the backup, but the
restored backup will require recovery.
See Also: Oracle9i Database Reference for more information about
the DBA_DATA_FILES and DBA_TABLESPACES views
Making User-Managed Backups in SUSPEND Mode
2-16 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
objects containing uncommitted changes. Also, if an instance failure occurred, you
would not be able to roll back uncommitted transactions to their original values.
Making User-Managed Backups in SUSPEND Mode
This section contains the following topics:
n About the Suspend/Resume Feature
n Making Backups in a Suspended Database
About the Suspend/Resume Feature
Some third-party tools allow you to mirror a set of disks or logical devices, that is,
maintain an exact duplicate of the primary data in another location, and then split
the mirror. Splitting the mirror involves separating the copies so that you can use
them independently.
With the SUSPEND/RESUME functionality, you can suspend I/O to the database,
then split the mirror and make a backup of the split mirror. By using this feature,
which complements the backup mode functionality, you can suspend database I/Os
so that no new I/O can be performed. You can then access the suspended database
to make backups without I/O interference.
You do not need to use SUSPEND/RESUME to make split mirror backups in most
cases, although it is necessary if your system requires the database cache to be free
of dirty buffers before a volume can be split.
The ALTER SYSTEM SUSPEND statement suspends the database by halting I/Os to
datafile headers, datafiles, and control files. When the database is suspended, all
pre-existing I/O operations can complete; however, any new database I/O access
attempts are queued.
The ALTER SYSTEM SUSPEND and ALTER SYSTEM RESUME statements operate on
the database and not just the instance. If the ALTER SYSTEM SUSPEND statement is
See Also: Oracle9i Database Administrator’s Guide to learn how to
manage undo space
Note: Some RAID devices benefit from suspending writes while
the split operation is occurring; your RAID vendor can advise you
on whether your system would benefit from this feature.
Making User-Managed Backups in SUSPEND Mode
Making User-Managed Backups 2-17
entered on one system in an Oracle Real Application Clusters configuration, then
the internal locking mechanisms propagate the halt request across instances,
thereby suspending I/O operations for all active instances in a given cluster.
Making Backups in a Suspended Database
After a successful database suspension, you can back up the database to disk or
break the mirrors. Because suspending a database does not guarantee immediate
termination of I/O, Oracle recommends that you precede the ALTER SYSTEM
SUSPEND statement with a BEGIN BACKUP statement so that the tablespaces are
placed in backup mode.
You must use conventional user-managed backup methods to back up split mirrors.
RMAN cannot make database backups or copies because these operations require
reading the datafile headers. After the database backup is finished or the mirrors are
re-silvered, then you can resume normal database operations using the ALTER
SYSTEM RESUME statement.
Backing up a suspended database without splitting mirrors can cause an extended
database outage because the database is inaccessible during this time. If backups are
taken by splitting mirrors, however, then the outage is nominal. The outage time
depends on the size of cache to flush, the number of datafiles, and the time required
to break the mirror.
Note the following restrictions for the SUSPEND/RESUME feature:
n In an Oracle Real Application Clusters configuration, you should not start a
new instance while the original nodes are suspended.
n No checkpoint is initiated by the ALTER SYSTEM SUSPEND or ALTER SYSTEM
RESUME statements.
n You cannot issue SHUTDOWN with IMMEDIATE or NORMAL options while the
database is suspended.
n Issuing SHUTDOWN ABORT on a database that was already suspended reactivates
the database. This operation prevents media recovery or crash recovery from
hanging.
To make a split mirror backup in SUSPEND mode:
1. Place the database tablespaces in backup mode. For example, to place
tablespace users in backup mode enter:
ALTER TABLESPACE users BEGIN BACKUP;
Making User-Managed Backups in SUSPEND Mode
2-18 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
2. If your mirror system has problems with splitting a mirror while disk writes are
occurring, then suspend the database. For example, issue the following:
ALTER SYSTEM SUSPEND;
3. Check to make sure that the database is suspended by querying V$INSTANCE.
For example:
SELECT DATABASE_STATUS FROM V$INSTANCE;
DATABASE_STATUS
-----------------
SUSPENDED
4. Split the mirrors at the operating system or hardware level.
5. End the database suspension. For example, issue the following statement:
ALTER SYSTEM RESUME;
6. Check to make sure that the database is active by querying V$INSTANCE. For
example, enter:
SELECT DATABASE_STATUS FROM V$INSTANCE;
DATABASE_STATUS
-----------------
ACTIVE
7. Take the specified tablespaces out of backup mode. For example, enter the
following to take tablespace users out of backup mode:
ALTER TABLESPACE users END BACKUP;
8. Copy the control file and archive the online redo logs as usual for a backup.
Caution: Do not use the ALTER SYSTEM SUSPEND statement as a
substitute for placing a tablespace in backup mode.
See Also: Oracle9i Database Administrator’s Guide for more
information about the SUSPEND/RESUME feature, and Oracle9i SQL
Reference for more information about the ALTER SYSTEM statement
Making User-Managed Backups of the Control File
Making User-Managed Backups 2-19
Making User-Managed Backups of the Control File
Back up the control file of a database after making a structural modification to a
database operating in ARCHIVELOG mode. To back up a database's control file, you
must have the ALTER DATABASE system privilege.
You have these options when backing up the control file:
n Backing Up the Control File to a Binary File
n Backing Up the Control File to a Trace File
Backing Up the Control File to a Binary File
The primary method for backing up the control file is to use a SQL statement to
generate a binary file. A binary backup is preferable to a trace file backup because it
contains additional information such as the archived log history, offline range for
read-only and offline tablespaces, and backup sets and copies (if you use RMAN).
Note that binary control file backups do not include tempfile entries.
To back up the control file after a structural change:
1. Make the desired change to the database. For example, you may create a new
tablespace:
CREATE TABLESPACE tbs_1 DATAFILE ’file_1.f’ SIZE 10M;
2. Back up the database's control file, specifying a filename for the output binary
file. The following SQL statement backs up a database's control file to
/oracle/backup/cf.bak:
ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO '/oracle/backup/cf.bak' REUSE;
You can specify the REUSE option to make the new control file overwrite a
control file that currently exists.
Backing Up the Control File to a Trace File
The TRACE option of the ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE statement helps
you manage and recover the control file. The TRACE option prompts Oracle to write
SQL statements to the database's trace file rather than generate a binary backup.
The statements in the trace file start the database, re-create the control file, and
recover and open the database appropriately.
Making User-Managed Backups of the Control File
2-20 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
To back up the control file to a trace file, mount or open the database and issue the
following SQL statement:
ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO TRACE;
If you specify neither the RESETLOGS nor NORESETLOGS option in the SQL
statement, then the output is a trace file containing a CREATE CONTROLFILE ...
NORESETLOGS statement. As in the case of binary control file backups, tempfile
entries are not included in the trace output.
Backing Up the Control File to a Trace File: Example
Assume that you want to generate a script that re-creates the control file for the
sales database. The database has these characteristics:
n Three threads are enabled, of which thread 2 is public and thread 3 is private.
n The redo logs are multiplexed into three groups of two members each.
n The database has the following datafiles:
– /diska/prod/sales/db/filea.dbf (offline datafile in online
tablespace)
– /diska/prod/sales/db/database1.dbf (online in SYSTEM
tablespace)
– /diska/prod/sales/db/fileb.dbf (only file in read-only tablespace)
You issue the following statement to create a trace file containing a CREATE
CONTROLFILE ... NORESETLOGS statement:
ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO TRACE NORESETLOGS;
You then edit the trace file to create a script that creates a new control file for the
sales database based on the control file that was current when you generated the
trace file. To avoid recovering offline normal or read-only tablespaces, edit them out
of the CREATE CONTROLFILE statement in the trace file. When you open the
database with the re-created control file, the dictionary check code will mark these
omitted files as MISSING. You can run an ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE
statement renames them back to their original filenames.
See Also: "Recovery of Read-Only Files with a Re-Created
Control File" on page 4-36 for special issues relating to read-only,
offline normal, and temporary files included in CREATE
CONTROLFILE statements
Making User-Managed Backups of the Control File
Making User-Managed Backups 2-21
For example, you can edit the CREATE CONTROLFILE ... NORESETLOGS script in
the trace file as follows, renaming files labeled MISSING:
# The following statements will create a new control file and use it to open the database.
# Log history and RMAN metadata will be lost. Additional logs may be required for media
# recovery of offline datafiles. Use this only if the current version of all online logs
# are available.
STARTUP NOMOUNT
CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE SALES NORESETLOGS ARCHIVELOG
MAXLOGFILES 32
MAXLOGMEMBERS 2
MAXDATAFILES 32
MAXINSTANCES 16
MAXLOGHISTORY 1600
LOGFILE
GROUP 1
'/diska/prod/sales/db/log1t1.dbf',
'/diskb/prod/sales/db/log1t2.dbf'
) SIZE 100K
GROUP 2
'/diska/prod/sales/db/log2t1.dbf',
'/diskb/prod/sales/db/log2t2.dbf'
) SIZE 100K,
GROUP 3
'/diska/prod/sales/db/log3t1.dbf',
'/diskb/prod/sales/db/log3t2.dbf'
) SIZE 100K
DATAFILE
'/diska/prod/sales/db/database1.dbf',
'/diskb/prod/sales/db/filea.dbf'
;
# This datafile is offline, but its tablespace is online. Take the datafile offline
# manually.
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE '/diska/prod/sales/db/filea.dbf' OFFLINE;
# Recovery is required if any datafiles are restored backups,
# or if the most recent shutdown was not normal or immediate.
RECOVER DATABASE;
# All redo logs need archiving and a log switch is needed.
ALTER SYSTEM ARCHIVE LOG ALL;
# The database can now be opened normally.
ALTER DATABASE OPEN;
# The backup control file does not list read-only and normal offline tablespaces so that
# Oracle can avoid performing recovery on them. Oracle checks the data dictionary and
Making User-Managed Backups of Archived Redo Logs
2-22 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
# finds information on these absent files and marks them 'MISSINGxxxx'. It then renames
# the missing files to acknowledge them without having to recover them.
ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE 'MISSING0002'
TO '/diska/prod/sales/db/fileb.dbf';
Making User-Managed Backups of Archived Redo Logs
To save disk space in your primary archiving location, you may want to back up
archived logs to tape or to an alternative disk location. If you archive to multiple
locations, then only back up one copy of each log sequence number.
To back up archived redo logs:
1. To determine which archived redo log files that the database has generated,
query V$ARCHIVED_LOG. For example, run the following query:
SELECT THREAD#,SEQUENCE#,NAME
FROM V$ARCHIVED_LOG;
2. Back up one copy of each log sequence number by using an operating system
utility. This example backs up all logs in the primary archiving location to a
disk devoted to log backups:
% cp /oracle/dbs/arc_dest/* /disk7/log_backups
Making User-Managed Backups to Raw Devices
A raw device is a disk or partition that does not have a file system. In other words,
a raw device can contain only a single file. Backing up files on raw devices poses
operating system specific issues. The following sections discuss some of these issues
on two of the most common Oracle operating systems: UNIX and Windows NT.
Backing Up to Raw Devices on UNIX
When backing up to or from raw devices, the UNIX dd command is the most
common backup utility. See your operating system specific documentation for
complete details about this utility.
See Also: Oracle9i Database Reference for more information about
the data dictionary views
See Also: Oracle9i Real Application Clusters Setup and Configuration
for a general overview of raw devices as they related to Oracle Real
Application Clusters
Making User-Managed Backups to Raw Devices
Making User-Managed Backups 2-23
The most important aspect of using dd is determining which options to specify. You
need to know the following information.
The information in the preceding table enables you to set the dd options specified in
Table 2–1.
Data Explanation
Block size You can specify the size of the buffer that dd uses to copy data. For
example, you can specify that dd should copy data in units of 8 KB
or 64 KB. Note that the block size for dd need not correspond to
either the Oracle block size or the operating system block size: it is
merely the size of the buffer used by dd when making the copy.
Raw offset On some systems, the beginning of the file on the raw device is
reserved for use by the operating system. This storage space is
called the raw offset. Oracle should not back up or restore these
bytes.
Size of Oracle block 0 At the beginning of every Oracle file, the operating system-specific
code places an Oracle block called block 0. The generic Oracle code
does not recognize this block, but the block is included in the size
of the file on the operating system. Typically, this block is the same
size as the other Oracle blocks in the file.
Table 2–1 Options for dd Command
This option ... Specifies ...
if The name of the input file, that is, the file that you are reading.
of The name of the output file, that is, the file to which you are writing.
bs The buffer size used by dd to copy data.
skip The number of dd buffers to skip on the input raw device if a raw offset
exists. For example, if you are backing up a file on a raw device with a 64
KB raw offset, and the dd buffer size is 8 KB, then you can specify
skip=8 so that the copy starts at offset 64 KB.
seek The number of dd buffers to skip on the output raw device if a raw offset
exists. For example, if you are backing up a file onto a raw device with a
64 KB raw offset, and the dd buffer size is 8 KB, then you can specify
skip=8 so that the copy starts at offset 64 KB.
Making User-Managed Backups to Raw Devices
2-24 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Because a raw device can be the input or output device for a backup, you have four
possible scenarios for the backup. The possible options for dd depend on which
scenario you choose, as illustrated in Table 2–2.
Backing Up with the dd utility on UNIX: Examples
For these examples of dd utility usage, assume the following:
n You are backing up a 30720 KB datafile.
n The beginning of the datafile has a block 0 of 8 KB.
n The raw offset is 64 KB.
n You set the dd block size to 8 KB when a raw device is involved in the copy.
In this example, you back up from one raw device to another raw device:
% dd if=/dev/rsd1b of=/dev/rsd2b bs=8k skip=8 seek=8 count=3841
In this example, you back up from a raw device to a file system:
% dd if=/dev/rsd1b of=/backup/df1.dbf bs=8k skip=8 count=3841
count The number of blocks on the input raw device for dd to copy. It is best to
specify the exact number of blocks to copy when copying from raw
device to file system, otherwise any extra space at the end of the raw
volume that is not used by the oracle datafile is copied to the file system.
Remember to include block 0 in the total size of the input file. For
example, if the dd block size is 8 KB, and you are backing up a 30720 KB
datafile, then you can set count=3841. This value for count actually
backs up 30728 bytes: the extra 8 bytes are for Oracle block 0.
Table 2–2 Scenarios Involving dd Backups
Backing Up from ... Backing Up to ... Options Specified for dd Command
Raw device Raw device if, of, bs, skip, seek, count
Raw device File system if, of, bs, skip, count
File system Raw device if, of, bs, seek
File system File system if, of, bs
Table 2–1 Options for dd Command
This option ... Specifies ...
Making User-Managed Backups to Raw Devices
Making User-Managed Backups 2-25
In this example, you back up from a file system to a raw device:
% dd if=/backup/df1.dbf of=/dev/rsd2b bs=8k seek=8
In this example, you back up from a file system to a file system, and so can set the
block size to a high value to boost I/O performance:
% dd if=/oracle/dbs/df1.dbf of=/backup/df1.dbf bs=1024k
Backing Up to Raw Devices on Windows NT
Like UNIX, Windows NT supports raw disk partitions in which Oracle can store
datafiles, online logs, and control files. Each raw partition is assigned either a drive
letter or physical drive number and does not contain a file system. As in UNIX, each
raw partition on NT is mapped to a single file.
NT differs from UNIX in the naming convention for Oracle files. On NT, raw
datafile names are formatted as follows:
\\.\drive_letter:
\\.\PHYSICALDRIVEdrive_number
For example, the following are possible raw filenames:
\\.\G:
\\.\PHYSICALDRIVE3
Note that you can also create aliases to raw filenames. The standard Oracle
installation provides a SETLINKS utility that can create aliases such as
\\.\Datafile12 that point to filenames such as \\.\PHYSICALDRIVE3.
The procedure for making user-managed backups of raw datafiles is basically the
same as for copying files on an NT file system, except that you should use the
Oracle OCOPY utility rather than the NT-supplied copy.exe or ntbackup.exe
utilities. Alternatively, if you have MKS utilities, then you can use the dd utility.
OCOPY supports 64-bit file I/O, physical raw drives, and raw files. Note that OCOPY
cannot back up directly to tape.
To display online documentation for OCOPY, enter OCOPY by itself at the Windows
NT prompt. Sample output follows:
Usage of OCOPY:
ocopy from_file [to_file [a | size_1 [size_n]]]
ocopy -b from_file to_drive
ocopy -r from_drive to_dir
Note the important OCOPY options described in the following table.
Making User-Managed Backups to Raw Devices
2-26 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Backing Up with OCOPY: Example
In this example, assume the following:
n Datafile 12 is mounted on the \\.\G: raw partition.
n The C: drive mounts a file system.
n The database is open.
To back up the datafile on the raw partition \\.\G: to a local file system, you can
execute the following command at the NT prompt after placing datafile 12 in
backup mode:
OCOPY "\\.G:" C:\backup\datafile12.bak
Specifying the -b and -r Options for OCOPY: Example
In this example, assume the following:
n \\.\G: is a raw partition containing datafile 7
n The A: drive is a removable disk drive.
n The database is open.
To back up the datafile onto drive A:, you can execute the following command at
the NT prompt after placing datafile 7 in backup mode:
# first argument is filename, second argument is drive
OCOPY -b "\\.\G:" A:\
When drive A: fills up, you can use another disk. In this way, you can divide the
backup of datafile 1 into multiple files.
Similarly, to restore the backup, take the tablespace containing datafile 7 offline and
run this command:
# first argument is drive, second argument is directory
OCOPY -r A:\ "\\.\G:"
This option ... Specifies ...
b Splits the input file into multiple output files. This option is useful for
backing up to devices that are smaller than the input file.
r Combines multiple input files and writes to a single output file. This
option is useful for restoring backups created with the -b option.
Verifying User-Managed Backups
Making User-Managed Backups 2-27
Verifying User-Managed Backups
You should periodically verify your backups to ensure that they are usable for
recovery. This section contains the following topics:
n Testing the Restore of Backups
n Using the DBVERIFY Utility
Testing the Restore of Backups
The best way to test the usability of backups is to restore them to a separate host
and attempt to open the database, performing media recovery if necessary. This
option requires that you have a separate host available for the restore procedure.
Using the DBVERIFY Utility
The DBVERIFY program is an external command-line utility that performs a
physical data structure integrity check on an offline datafile. Use DBVERIFY
primarily when you need to ensure that a user-managed backup of a datafile is
valid before it is restored or as a diagnostic aid when you have encountered data
corruption problems.
The name and location of DBVERIFY is dependent on your operating system. For
example, to perform an integrity check on datafile tbs_52.f on UNIX, you can run
the dbv command as follows:
% dbv file=tbs_52.f
Sample dbv output follows:
DBVERIFY: Release 9.2.0.0.0
See Also:
n "Restoring Datafiles" on page 3-6 to learn how to restore
datafiles
n "Restoring and Re-Creating Control Files" on page 3-8 to learn
how to restore datafiles
n "Restoring Archived Redo Logs" on page 3-15 to learn how to
restore datafiles
n "Performing Complete User-Managed Media Recovery" on
page 4-9 to learn how to recover files
Making Logical Backups with Export
2-28 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
(c) Copyright 2000 Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
DBVERIFY - Verification starting : FILE = tbs_52.f
DBVERIFY - Verification complete
Total Pages Examined : 250
Total Pages Processed (Data) : 4
Total Pages Failing (Data) : 0
Total Pages Processed (Index): 15
Total Pages Failing (Index): 0
Total Pages Processed (Other): 29
Total Pages Empty : 202
Total Pages Marked Corrupt : 0
Total Pages Influx : 0
Making Logical Backups with Export
Export and Import are utilities that move Oracle data in and out of Oracle
databases. Export writes data from an Oracle database to an operating system file in
a special binary format. Import reads Export files and restores the corresponding
information into an existing database. Although Export and Import are designed for
moving Oracle data, you can use them to supplement physical database backups.
This section describes the Import and Export utilities, and includes the following
topics:
n Using Export
n Using Import
Using Export
The Export utility can back up logical database objects while the database is open
and available for use. It writes a read-consistent view of the database's objects to an
operating system file. System audit options are not exported.
See Also: Oracle9i Database Utilities for information about
DBVERIFY
See Also: Oracle9i Database Utilities for complete documentation
describing the Export and Import utilities
Making User-Managed Backups of Miscellaneous Oracle Files
Making User-Managed Backups 2-29
Table 2–3 lists available export modes.
Using Import
The Import utility can restore the database information held in previously created
Export files. It is the complement utility to Export.
To recover a database using Export files and the Import utility:
1. Re-create the database structure, including all tablespaces and users. These
re-created structures should not have objects in them.
2. Import the appropriate Export files to restore the database to the most current
state possible. Depending on how your Export schedule is performed, imports
of varying degrees will be necessary to restore a database.
Making User-Managed Backups of Miscellaneous Oracle Files
You should always back up initialization parameter files, networking and
configuration files, and password files. If a media failure destroys these files, then
you may have difficulty re-creating your original environment. For example, if you
Caution: If you use Export to perform a logical backup, then you
must export all data in a logically consistent way so that the backup
reflects a single point in time. No one should make changes to the
database while the Export takes place. Ideally, you should run the
database in ALTER SYSTEM QUIESCE RESTRICTED mode while
you export the data, so no regular users can access the data.
Alternatively, you can quiesce the database before you export the
data, and unquiesce the database afterward.
Table 2–3 Export Modes
Mode Description
User (Owner) Exports all objects owned by a user.
Tablespace Exports all objects contained in the tablespace.
Table Exports all or specific tables owned by a user and objects
defined on these tables such as privileges, triggers, views, and
indexes.
Full Database Exports all objects of the database.
Making User-Managed Backups of Miscellaneous Oracle Files
2-30 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
back up the database and server parameter file but do not back up the networking
files (for example, tnsnames.ora and listener.ora), then you can restore and
recover the database but will not be able to authenticate users through Oracle Net
until you re-create the networking files.
As a general rule, you should back up miscellaneous Oracle files after changing
them. For example, if you add or change the net service names that can be used to
access the database, then create a new backup of the tnsnames.ora file.
The easiest way to find configuration files is to start in the Oracle home directory
and do a recursive search for all files ending in the .ora extension. For example, on
UNIX you can run this command:
% find $ORACLE_HOME -name "*.ora" -print
You must use third-party utilities to back up the configuration files. For example,
you can use the UNIX cp command to back up the tnsnames.ora and
listener.ora files as follows:
% cp $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/tnsnames.ora /disk2/bkups/tnsnames01-22-01.ora
% cp $ORACLE_HOME/network/adminlistener.ora /disk2/bkups/listener01-22-01.ora
You can also use an operating system utility to back up the server parameter file.
Although the database does not depend on the existence of a particular version of
the server parameter file to be started, you should keep relatively current backups
of this file so that you do not lose changes made to the file. Note that if you lose the
server parameter file, you can always create a new one or start the instance with a
client-side initialization parameter file (PFILE).
See Also: Oracle9i Database Administrator’s Guide to learn how to
manage and export server parameter files
Performing User-Managed Restore Operations 3-1
3
Performing User-Managed Restore
Operations
This chapter describes how to recover a database, and includes the following topics:
n About User-Managed Restore Operations
n Keeping Records For Use in a Restore Scenario
n Determining Which Datafiles Require Recovery
n Restoring Datafiles
n Re-Creating Datafiles When Backups Are Unavailable
n Restoring and Re-Creating Control Files
n Restoring Archived Redo Logs
About User-Managed Restore Operations
3-2 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
About User-Managed Restore Operations
To restore a file is to replace it with a backup file. Typically, you restore a file when a
media failure or user error has damaged or deleted the original file. The following
files are candidates for restore operations:
n Datafiles
n Control files
n Archived redo logs
n Server parameter file
In each case, the loss of a primary file and the restore of a backup has the following
implications for media recovery.
If you lose . . . Then . . .
One or more datafiles You must restore them from a backup and perform media
recovery. Recovery is required whenever the checkpoint SCN in
the datafile header does not match the checkpoint SCN for the
datafile that is recorded in the control file.
All copies of the current
control file
You must restore a backup control file and then open the
database with the RESETLOGS option.
If you do not have a backup, then you can attempt to re-create
the control file. If possible, use the script included in the ALTER
DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO TRACE output.
Additional work may be required to match the control file
structure with the current database structure.
One copy of a
multiplexed control file
Copy one of the intact multiplexed control files into the location
of the damaged or missing control file and open the database. If
you cannot copy the control file to its original location (for
example, because the disk drive cannot be salvaged), then edit
the initialization parameter file to reflect a new location. Then,
open the database.
One or more archived
logs required for media
recovery
You must restore backups of these archived logs for media
recovery to proceed. You can restore either to the default or to a
nondefault location. If you do not have backups, then you must
performing incomplete recovery up to a point before the first
missing log and open RESETLOGS.
The server parameter file If you have a backup of the server parameter file, then restore it.
Alternatively, if you have a backup of the client-side
initialization parameter file, then you can restore a backup of
this file, start the instance, and then re-create the server
parameter file.
Keeping Records For Use in a Restore Scenario
Performing User-Managed Restore Operations 3-3
Keeping Records For Use in a Restore Scenario
One of the most important aspects of user-managed backup and recovery is keeping
records of all current database files as well as the backups of these files. For
example, you should have records for the location of the following files:
n Datafiles
n Control files
n Online redo logs (note that online logs are never backed up)
n Archived redo logs
n Initialization parameter files
n Password files
n Networking-related files
Recording the Locations of Datafiles, Control Files, and Online Redo Logs
The following useful SQL script displays the location of all control files, datafiles,
and online redo log files for the database:
SELECT NAME FROM V$DATAFILE
UNION ALL
SELECT MEMBER FROM V$LOGFILE
UNION ALL
SELECT NAME FROM V$CONTROLFILE;
Sample output follows:
NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/oracle/dbs/tbs_01.f
/oracle/dbs/tbs_02.f
/oracle/dbs/tbs_11.f
/oracle/dbs/tbs_12.f
/oracle/dbs/t1_log1.f
/oracle/dbs/t1_log2.f
/oracle/dbs/cf1.f
/oracle/dbs/cf2.f
Note: Restore and recovery of Oracle-managed files is no different
from restore and recovery of user-named files.
Keeping Records For Use in a Restore Scenario
3-4 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Recording the Locations of Archived Redo Logs
You can determine the location of the default archived log destinations by executing
the following SQL script:
SELECT NAME, VALUE
FROM V$PARAMETER
WHERE NAME LIKE log_archive_dest%
AND VALUE IS NOT NULL
/
NAME VALUE
---------------------------------- -------------------------------------------
log_archive_dest_1 LOCATION=/oracle/work/arc_dest/arc
log_archive_dest_state_1 enable
Determine the format for archived logs by running SHOW as follows:
SHOW PARAMETER LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT
NAME TYPE VALUE
------------------------------------ ------- ------------------------------
log_archive_format string r_%t_%s.arc
To see a list of all the archived logs recorded in the control file, issue this query:
SELECT NAME FROM V$ARCHIVED_LOG;
NAME
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
/oracle/work/arc_dest/arcr_1_110.a
/oracle/work/arc_dest/arcr_1_111.a
/oracle/work/arc_dest/arcr_1_112.a
/oracle/work/arc_dest/arcr_1_113.a
Recording the Locations of Backup Files
It is not enough to merely record the location of backup files: you must correlate the
backups with the original files. If possible, name the backups with the same relative
filename as the primary file. Whatever naming system you use, keep a table
containing the relevant information. For example, you could keep the following
table as a record of database file locations in case of a restore emergency.
See Also: Oracle9i Database Reference for more information on the
V$ views
Determining Which Datafiles Require Recovery
Performing User-Managed Restore Operations 3-5
Determining Which Datafiles Require Recovery
You can use the dynamic performance view V$RECOVER_FILE to determine which
files to restore in preparation for media recovery. This view lists all files that need to
be recovered, and explains why they need to be recovered.
The following query displays the file ID numbers of datafiles that require media
recovery as well as the reason for recovery (if known) and the SCN and time when
recovery needs to begin:
SELECT * FROM V$RECOVER_FILE;
FILE# ONLINE ERROR CHANGE# TIME
---------- ------- ------------------ ---------- ---------
14 ONLINE 0
15 ONLINE FILE NOT FOUND 0
21 OFFLINE OFFLINE NORMAL 0
Query V$DATAFILE and V$TABLESPACE to obtain filenames and tablespace names
for datafiles requiring recovery. For example, enter:
SELECT d.NAME, t.NAME AS tablespace_name
FROM V$DATAFILE d, V$TABLESPACE t
WHERE t.TS# = d.TS#
AND d.FILE# IN (14,15,21); # use values obtained from V$RECOVER_FILE query
NAME TABLESPACE_NAME
---------------------------------- ----------------
/oracle/dbs/tbs_14.f TBS_1
Datafile Number Tablespace Backup Filename
0 (control file) 0 (control file) /dsk3/backup/cf.f
1 SYSTEM /dsk3/backup/tbs_01.f
2 undo /dsk3/backup/tbs_02.f
3 temp /dsk3/backup/tbs_11.f
4 users /dsk3/backup/tbs_12.f
Note: The view is not useful if the control file currently in use is a
restored backup or a new control file created after the media failure
occurred. A restored or re-created control file does not contain the
information Oracle needs to fill V$RECOVER_FILE accurately.
Restoring Datafiles
3-6 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
/oracle/dbs/tbs_15.f TBS_2
/oracle/dbs/tbs_21.f TBS_3
You can combine these queries in the following SQL*Plus script (sample output
show in the following example):
COL df# FORMAT 999
COL df_name FORMAT a20
COL tbsp_name FORMAT a10
COL status FORMAT a7
COL error FORMAT a10
SELECT r.FILE# AS df#, d.NAME AS df_name, t.NAME AS tbsp_name,
d.STATUS, r.ERROR, r.CHANGE#, r.TIME
FROM V$RECOVER_FILE r, V$DATAFILE d, V$TABLESPACE t
WHERE t.TS# = d.TS#
AND d.FILE# = r.FILE#
/
Sample output follows:
DF# DF_NAME TBSP_NAME STATUS ERROR CHANGE# TIME
---- -------------------- ---------- ------- ---------- ----------- ----------
14 /oracle/dbs/tbs_14.f TBS_1 OFFLINE OFFLINE 0
NORMAL
15 /oracle/dbs/tbs_15.f TBS_2 OFFLINE OFFLINE 0
NORMAL
21 /oracle/dbs/tbs_21.f TBS_3 OFFLINE OFFLINE 0
NORMAL
Restoring Datafiles
If a media failure permanently damages one or more datafiles of a database, then
you must restore backups of these datafiles before you can recover the damaged
files. If you cannot restore a damaged datafile to its original location (for example,
you must replace a disk, so you restore the files to an alternate disk), then you must
indicate the new locations of these files to the control file.
If you are restoring an Oracle file on a raw disk or partition, then the procedure is
basically the same as when restoring to a file on a file system. However, you must
be aware of the naming conventions for files on raw devices (which differ
depending on the operating system), and use an operating system utility that
supports raw devices.
Re-Creating Datafiles When Backups Are Unavailable
Performing User-Managed Restore Operations 3-7
To restore backup datafiles to their default location:
1. Determine which datafiles to recover by using the techniques described in
"Determining Which Datafiles Require Recovery" on page 3-5.
2. If the database is open, then take the tablespaces containing the inaccessible
datafiles offline. For example, enter:
ALTER TABLESPACE users OFFLINE IMMEDIATE;
3. Copy backups of the damaged datafiles to their default location using operating
system commands. For example, to restore tbs_24.f on UNIX you might
issue:
% cp /disk2/backup/tbs_24.bak /disk1/oracle/dbs/tbs_24.f
4. Recover the affected tablespace. For example, enter:
RECOVER TABLESPACE users
5. Bring the recovered tablespace online. For example, enter:
ALTER TABLESPACE users ONLINE;
Re-Creating Datafiles When Backups Are Unavailable
If a datafile is damaged and no backup of the file is available, then you can still
recover the datafile if:
n All archived log files written after the creation of the original datafile are
available
n The control file contains the name of the damaged file (that is, the control file is
current, or is a backup taken after the damaged datafile was added to the
database)
To re-create a datafile for recovery:
1. Create a new, empty datafile to replace a damaged datafile that has no
corresponding backup. For example, assume that the datafile
See Also: "Making User-Managed Backups to Raw Devices" on
page 2-22 for an overview of considerations when backing up and
restoring files on raw devices
Restoring and Re-Creating Control Files
3-8 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
/disk1/users1.f has been damaged, and no backup is available. The
following statement re-creates the original datafile (same size) on disk2:
ALTER DATABASE CREATE DATAFILE '/disk1/users1.f' AS '/disk2/users1.f';
This statement creates an empty file that is the same size as the lost file. Oracle
looks at information in the control file and the data dictionary to obtain size
information. The old datafile is renamed as the new datafile.
2. Perform media recovery on the empty datafile. For example, enter:
RECOVER DATAFILE '/disk2/users1.f'
3. All archived redo logs written after the original datafile was created must be
mounted and reapplied to the new, empty version of the lost datafile during
recovery.
Restoring and Re-Creating Control Files
If a media failure has affected the control files of a database (whether control files
are multiplexed or not), then the database continues to run until the first time that
an Oracle background process needs to access the control files. At this point, the
database and instance are automatically shut down.
If the media failure is temporary and the database has not yet shut down, avoid the
automatic shutdown of the database by immediately correcting the media failure. If
the database shuts down before you correct the temporary media failure, however,
then you can restart the database after fixing the problem and restoring access to the
control files.
The appropriate recovery procedure for media failures that permanently prevent
access to control files of a database depends on whether you have multiplexed the
control files. The following sections describe the appropriate procedures:
n Losing a Member of a Multiplexed Control File
n Losing All Members of a Multiplexed Control File When a Backup Is Available
n Losing All Current and Backup Control Files
Note: You cannot re-create any of the datafiles for the SYSTEM
tablespace by using the CREATE DATAFILE clause of the ALTER
DATABASE statement because the necessary redo data is not
available.
Restoring and Re-Creating Control Files
Performing User-Managed Restore Operations 3-9
Losing a Member of a Multiplexed Control File
Use the following procedures to recover a database if a permanent media failure has
damaged one or more control files of a database and at least one control file has not
been damaged by the media failure.
Copying a Multiplexed Control File to a Default Location
Assuming that the disk and file system containing the lost control file are intact,
then you can simply copy one of the intact control files to the location of the missing
control file. In this case, you do not have to alter the CONTROL_FILES initialization
parameter setting.
To replace a damaged control file by copying a multiplexed control file:
1. If the instance is still running, then shut it down:
SHUTDOWN ABORT
2. Correct the hardware problem that caused the media failure. If you cannot
repair the hardware problem quickly, then you can proceed with database
recovery by restoring damaged control files to an alternative storage device, as
described in "Copying a Multiplexed Control File to a Nondefault Location" on
page 3-9.
3. Use an intact multiplexed copy of the database's current control file to copy
over the damaged control files. For example, to replace bad_cf.f with good_
cf.f, you might enter:
% cp /oracle/good_cf.f /oracle/dbs/bad_cf.f
4. Start a new instance and mount and open the database. For example, enter:
STARTUP
Copying a Multiplexed Control File to a Nondefault Location
Assuming that the disk and file system containing the lost control file are not intact,
then you cannot copy one of the "good" control files to the location of the missing
control file. In this case, you must alter the CONTROL_FILES initialization
parameter to indicate a new location for the missing control file.
To restore a control file to a nondefault location:
1. If the instance is still running, then shut it down:
SHUTDOWN ABORT
Restoring and Re-Creating Control Files
3-10 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
2. If you cannot correct the hardware problem that caused the media failure, then
copy the intact control file to alternative locations. For example, to copy good_
cf.f to new_cf.f you might issue:
% cp /oracle/dbs/good_cf.f /oracle/dbs/new_cf.f
3. Edit the parameter file of the database so that the CONTROL_FILES parameter
reflects the current locations of all control files and excludes all control files that
were not restored. For example, assume the initialization parameter file
contains:
CONTROL_FILES = '/oracle/dbs/good_cf.f', '/oracle/dbs/bad_cf.f'
Then, you can edit it as follows:
CONTROL_FILES = '/oracle/dbs/good_cf.f', '/oracle/dbs/new_cf.f'
4. Start a new instance and mount and open the database. For example, enter the
following in SQL*Plus:
STARTUP
Losing All Members of a Multiplexed Control File When a Backup Is Available
Use the following procedures to restore a backup control file if a permanent media
failure has damaged all control files of a database and you have a backup of the
control file. When a control file is inaccessible, then you can start the instance, but
not mount the database. If you attempt to mount the database when the control file
is unavailable, you see this error message:
ORA-00205: error in identifying controlfile, check alert log for more info
You cannot mount and open the database until you make the control file accessible
again. If you restore a backup control file, then you must open the database with the
RESETLOGS option.
As indicated in Table 3–1, the procedure for restoring the control file depends on
whether the online redo logs are available.
Restoring and Re-Creating Control Files
Performing User-Managed Restore Operations 3-11
Restoring a Backup Control File to the Default Location
If possible, restore the control file to its original location. In this way, you avoid
having to specify new control file locations in the initialization parameter file.
To restore a backup control file to its default location:
1. If the instance is still running, shut it down:
SHUTDOWN ABORT
2. Correct the hardware problem that caused the media failure.
3. Restore the backup control file to all locations specified in the CONTROL_FILES
initialization parameter. For example, if /dsk1/oracle/dbs/cf1.f and
/dsk2/cf2.f are the control file locations listed in the server parameter file,
then use an operating system utility to restore the backup control file to these
locations:
% cp /backup/cf.bak /dsk1/oracle/dbs/cf1.f
% cp /backup/cf.bak /dsk2/cf2.f
4. Start a new instance and mount the database. For example, enter:
STARTUP MOUNT
Table 3–1 Scenarios When Control Files Are Lost
Status of
Online Logs
Status of
Datafiles Response
Available Current If the online logs contain redo necessary for recovery, then
restore a backup control file apply the logs during
recovery. Hence, you must specify the filename of the
online logs containing the changes in order to open the
database. After recovery, open RESETLOGS.
Unavailable Current If the online logs contain redo necessary for recovery, then
you must re-create the control file. Because the logs are
inaccessible, open RESETLOGS.
Available Backup Restore a backup control file, perform complete recovery,
and then open RESETLOGS.
Unavailable Backup Restore a backup control file, perform incomplete
recovery, and then open RESETLOGS.
Restoring and Re-Creating Control Files
3-12 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
5. Begin recovery by executing the RECOVER command with the USING BACKUP
CONTROLFILE clause. Specify UNTIL CANCEL if you are performing incomplete
recovery. For example, enter:
RECOVER DATABASE USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE UNTIL CANCEL
6. Apply the prompted archived logs. If you then receive another message saying
that the required archived log is missing, it probably means that a necessary
redo record is located in the online redo logs. This situation can occur when
unarchived changes were located in the online logs when the instance crashed.
For example, assume that you see the following:
ORA-00279: change 55636 generated at 06/08/2000 16:59:47 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : /oracle/work/arc_dest/arcr_1_111.arc
ORA-00280: change 55636 for thread 1 is in sequence #111
Specify log: {=suggested | filename | AUTO | CANCEL}
You can specify the name of an online redo log and press Enter (you may have
to try this a few times until you find the correct log):
/oracle/dbs/t1_log1.f
Log applied.
Media recovery complete.
If for some reason the online logs are not accessible, then you can cancel
recovery without applying the online logs. Note that if all datafiles are current,
and redo is located in the online logs that is required for recovery, then you
cannot open the database without applying the online logs. If the online logs
are inaccessible, then you must re-create the control file (refer to "Losing All
Current and Backup Control Files" on page 3-13).
7. Open the database with the RESETLOGS option after finishing recovery:
ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
8. Immediately back up the database as a precautionary measure, as described in
"Making User-Managed Backups of the Whole Database" on page 2-4.
Restoring a Backup Control File to a Nondefault Location
If you cannot restore the control file to its original place because the media damage
is too severe, then you must specify new control file locations in the server
parameter file. A valid control file must be available in all locations specified by the
CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter. If not, then Oracle prevents you from the
mounting the database.
Restoring and Re-Creating Control Files
Performing User-Managed Restore Operations 3-13
To restore a control file to a nondefault location:
Follow the steps in "Restoring a Backup Control File to the Default Location" on
page 3-11, except after step 2 add the following step:
Edit all locations specified in the CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter to reflect
the new control file locations. For example, if the control file locations listed in the
server parameter file are as follows:
CONTROL_FILES = ’/dsk1/oracle/dbs/cf1.f’, ’/dsk2/cf2.f’
You can change the initialization parameter to read:
CONTROL_FILES = ’/dsk3/tmp/cf1.f’, ’dsk3/tmp/cf2.f’
Losing All Current and Backup Control Files
If all control files have been lost or damaged by a permanent media failure, but all
online redo logfiles remain intact, then you can recover the database after creating a
new control file. Note that this procedure does not require you to open the database
with the RESETLOGS option.
Depending on the existence and currency of a control file backup, you have the
options listed in Table 3–2 for generating the text of the CREATE CONTROLFILE
statement. Note that changes to the database are recorded in the alert_SID.log,
so check this log when deciding which option to choose.
Table 3–2 Options for Creating the Control File (Page 1 of 2)
If you . . . Then . . .
Executed ALTER DATABASE BACKUP
CONTROLFILE TO TRACE NORESETLOGS
after you made the last structural change to
the database, and if you have saved the SQL
command trace output
Use the CREATE CONTROLFILE statement
from the trace output as-is.
Performed your most recent execution of
ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE
TO TRACE before you made a structural
change to the database
Edit the output of ALTER DATABASE
BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO TRACE to reflect
the change. For example, if you recently
added a datafile to the database, then add
this datafile to the DATAFILE clause of the
CREATE CONTROLFILE statement.
Restoring and Re-Creating Control Files
3-14 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
To create a new control file:
1. Start the database in NOMOUNT mode. For example, enter:
STARTUP NOMOUNT
2. Create the control file with the CREATE CONTROLFILE statement, specifying the
NORESETLOGS option (refer to Table 3–2 for options). The following example
assumes that the character set is the default US7ASCII:
CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE SALES NORESETLOGS ARCHIVELOG
MAXLOGFILES 32
MAXLOGMEMBERS 2
MAXDATAFILES 32
MAXINSTANCES 16
MAXLOGHISTORY 1600
LOGFILE
GROUP 1 (
'/diska/prod/sales/db/log1t1.dbf',
'/diskb/prod/sales/db/log1t2.dbf'
) SIZE 100K
GROUP 2 (
'/diska/prod/sales/db/log2t1.dbf',
'/diskb/prod/sales/db/log2t2.dbf'
Backed up the control file with the ALTER
DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO
filename statement (not the TO TRACE
option)
Use the control file copy to obtain SQL
output. Copy the backup control file and
execute STARTUP MOUNT before ALTER
DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO
TRACE NORESETLOGS. If the control file
copy predated a recent structural change,
then edit the trace output to reflect the
structural change.
Do not have a control file backup in either
TO TRACE format or TO filename format
Create the CREATE CONTROLFILE
statement manually (see Oracle9i SQL
Reference).
Note: If your character set is not the default US7ASCII, then you
must specify the character set as an argument to the CREATE
CONTROLFILE statement. The database character set is written to
the alert log at startup. The character set information is also
recorded in the BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO TRACE output.
Table 3–2 Options for Creating the Control File (Page 2 of 2)
If you . . . Then . . .
Restoring Archived Redo Logs
Performing User-Managed Restore Operations 3-15
) SIZE 100K,
DATAFILE
'/diska/prod/sales/db/database1.dbf',
'/diskb/prod/sales/db/filea.dbf';
After creating the control file, Oracle mounts the database.
3. Recover the database as normal (without specifying the USING BACKUP
CONTROLFILE clause):
RECOVER DATABASE
4. Open the database after media recovery completes:
ALTER DATABASE OPEN;
Note that a RESETLOGS is not necessary.
5. Immediately back up the control file. The following SQL statement backs up a
database's control file to ?/dbs/cf.bak:
ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO '?/dbs/cf.bak' REUSE;
Restoring Archived Redo Logs
All archived redo log files generated between the time a restored backup was
created and the target recovery time are required for the pending media recovery.
The archived logs will eventually need to be on disk so that they are available to
Oracle during the recovery.
To restore necessary archived redo logs:
1. To determine which archived redo log files are needed, query V$ARCHIVED_
LOG and V$RECOVERY_LOG. If a datafile requires recovery, but not backup of
the datafile exists, then you need all redo generated starting from the time when
the datafile was added to the database.
See Also: "Backing Up the Control File to a Trace File" on
page 2-19.
View Description
V$ARCHIVED_LOG Lists all the filenames for all the archived logs.
Restoring Archived Redo Logs
3-16 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
2. If space is available, then restore the required archived redo log files to the
location specified by LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1. Oracle locates the correct log
automatically when required during media recovery. For example, enter:
% cp /disk2/arc_backup/*.arc /disk1/oracle/dbs/arc_dest
3. If sufficient space is not available at the location indicated by the archiving
destination initialization parameter, restore some or all of the required archived
redo log files to an alternate location. Specify the location before or during
media recovery using the LOGSOURCE parameter of the SET statement in
SQL*Plus or the RECOVER ... FROM parameter of the ALTER DATABASE
statement in SQL. For example, enter:
SET LOGSOURCE /disk2/temp # set location using SET statement
DATABASE RECOVER FROM ’/disk2/temp’; # set location in RECOVER statement itself
4. After an archived log is applied, and after making sure that a copy of each
archived log group still exists in offline storage, delete the restored copy of the
archived redo log file to free disk space. For example, after making the log
directory your working directory, enter:
% rm *.arc
V$RECOVERY_LOG Lists only the archived redo logs that Oracle needs to perform
media recovery. It also includes the probable names of the files,
using LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT.
Note: This view is only populated when recovery is required for
a datafile. Hence, this view is not useful in the case of a planned
recovery such as a user error.
See Also: Oracle9i Database Reference for more information about
the data dictionary views, and "Performing User-Managed Media
Recovery: Overview" on page 4-2 for an overview of log application
during media recovery
View Description
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-1
4
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery
This chapter describes how to recover a database, and includes the following topics:
n Performing User-Managed Media Recovery: Overview
n Performing Complete User-Managed Media Recovery
n Performing Incomplete User-Managed Media Recovery
n Recovering a Database in NOARCHIVELOG Mode
n Performing Media Recovery in Parallel
n Opening the Database After User-Managed Media Recovery
n Interrupting User-Managed Media Recovery
n User-Managed Media Recovery Restrictions
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery: Overview
4-2 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery: Overview
During complete or incomplete media recovery, Oracle applies redo log files to the
datafiles during the roll forward phase of media recovery. Because changes to undo
segments are recorded in the online redo log, rolling forward regenerates the
corresponding undo segments. Rolling forward proceeds through as many redo log
files as necessary to bring the database forward in time.
If you do not use Recovery Manager (RMAN) to perform recovery, then you should
use the SQL*Plus RECOVER command. It is also possible to use the SQL statement
ALTER DATABASE RECOVER, but it is highly recommended that you use the
SQL*Plus RECOVER command instead.
This section contains these topics:
n Preconditions of Performing User-Managed Recovery
n Applying Logs Automatically with the RECOVER Command
n Recovering When Archived Logs Are in the Default Location
n Recovering When Archived Logs Are in a Nondefault Location
n Resetting the Archived Log Destination
n Overriding the Archived Log Destination
n Responding to Unsuccessful Application of Redo Logs
Preconditions of Performing User-Managed Recovery
To start any type of media recovery, you must adhere to the following restrictions:
n You must have administrator privileges.
n All recovery sessions must be compatible.
n One session cannot start complete media recovery while another performs
incomplete media recovery.
n You cannot start media recovery if you are connected to the database through a
shared server process.
Applying Logs Automatically with the RECOVER Command
Oracle Corporation recommends that you use the SQL*Plus RECOVER command
rather than the ALTER DATABASE RECOVER statement to perform media recovery.
In almost all cases, the SQL*Plus method is easier.
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery: Overview
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-3
When using SQL*Plus to perform media recovery, the easiest strategy is to perform
automatic recovery. Automatic recovery initiates recovery without manually
prompting SQL*Plus to apply each individual archived log.
When using SQL*Plus, you have two options for automating the application of the
default filenames of archived redo logs needed during recovery:
n Issuing SET AUTORECOVERY ON before issuing the RECOVER command
n Specifying the AUTOMATIC keyword as an option of the RECOVER command
In either case, no interaction is required when you issue the RECOVER command if
the necessary files are in the correct locations with the correct names.
The filenames used when you use automatic recovery are derived from the
concatenated values of LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT with LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n,
where n is the highest value among all enabled, local destinations.
For example, assume the following initialization parameter settings are in effect in
the database instance:
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1 = "LOCATION=/arc_dest/loc1/"
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_2 = "LOCATION=/arc_dest/loc2/"
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_STATE_1 = DEFER
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_STATE_2 = ENABLE
LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT = arch_%t_%s.arc
In this case, SQL*Plus automatically suggests the filename /arc_
dest/loc2/arch_%t_%s.arc (where %t is the thread and %s is the sequence).
If you run SET AUTORECOVERY OFF, which is the default option, then you must
enter the filenames manually, or accept the suggested default filename by pressing
the Enter key.
Using SET AUTORECOVERY for Automatic Recovery
Run the SET AUTORECOVERY ON command to enable on automatic recovery.
To automate the recovery using SET AUTORECOVERY:
1. Restore a backup of the offline datafiles. This example restores an inconsistent
backup of all datafiles using an operating system utility:
% cp /fs2/BACKUP/tbs* /oracle/dbs
2. Ensure the database is mounted. For example, if the database is shut down, run:
STARTUP MOUNT
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery: Overview
4-4 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
3. Enable automatic recovery. For example, in SQL*Plus run:
SET AUTORECOVERY ON
4. Recover the desired datafiles. This example recovers the whole database:
RECOVER DATABASE
Oracle automatically suggests and applies the necessary archived logs, as in this
sample output:
ORA-00279: change 53577 generated at 01/26/00 19:20:58 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : /oracle/work/arc_dest/arcr_1_802.arc
ORA-00280: change 53577 for thread 1 is in sequence #802
Log applied.
ORA-00279: change 53584 generated at 01/26/00 19:24:05 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : /oracle/work/arc_dest/arcr_1_803.arc
ORA-00280: change 53584 for thread 1 is in sequence #803
ORA-00278: log file "/oracle/work/arc_dest/arcr_1_802.arc" no longer needed for this
recovery
Log applied.
Media recovery complete.
5. Open the database. For example:
ALTER DATABASE OPEN;
Using RECOVERY AUTOMATIC for Automatic Recovery
Besides using SET AUTORECOVERY to turn on automatic recovery, you can also
simply specify the AUTOMATIC keyword in the RECOVER command.
To automate the recovery with the RECOVER AUTOMATIC command:
1. Restore a backup of the offline datafiles. This example restores a backup of all
datafiles:
% cp /oracle/work/BACKUP/tbs* /oracle/dbs
2. Ensure the database is mounted. For example, if the database is shut down, run:
STARTUP MOUNT
Note: After issuing the ALTER DATABASE RECOVER statement,
you can view all files that have been considered for recovery in the
V$RECOVERY_FILE_STATUS view. You can access status
information for each file in the V$RECOVERY_STATUS view. These
views are not accessible after you terminate the recovery session.
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery: Overview
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-5
3. Recover the desired datafiles by specifying the AUTOMATIC keyword. This
example performs automatic recovery on the whole database:
RECOVER AUTOMATIC DATABASE
4. Oracle automatically suggests and applies the necessary archived logs as
illustrated in the following output:
ORA-00279: change 53577 generated at 01/26/00 19:20:58 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : /oracle/work/arc_dest/arcr_1_802.arc
ORA-00280: change 53577 for thread 1 is in sequence #802
Log applied.
ORA-00279: change 53584 generated at 01/26/00 19:24:05 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : /oracle/work/arc_dest/arcr_1_803.arc
ORA-00280: change 53584 for thread 1 is in sequence #803
ORA-00278: log file "/oracle/work/arc_dest/arcr_1_802.arc" no longer needed for this
recovery
Log applied.
Media recovery complete.
5. Open the database. For example:
ALTER DATABASE OPEN;
If you use an Oracle Real Application Clusters configuration, and if you are
performing incomplete recovery or using a backup control file, then Oracle can only
compute the name of the first archived redo log file from the first redo thread. You
may have to manually apply the first log file from the other redo threads. After the
first log file in a given thread has been supplied, Oracle can suggest the names of
the subsequent logs in this thread.
Recovering When Archived Logs Are in the Default Location
Recovering when the archived logs are in their default location is the simplest case.
As a log is needed, Oracle suggests the filename. If you are running nonautomatic
media recovery with SQL*Plus, then the output is displayed in this format:
ORA-00279: Change #### generated at DD/MM/YY HH:MM:SS needed for thread#
ORA-00289: Suggestion : logfile
ORA-00280: Change #### for thread # is in sequence #
Specify log: [ for suggested | AUTO | FROM logsource | CANCEL ]
See Also: Your operating system specific Oracle documentation
for examples of log file application
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery: Overview
4-6 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
For example, SQL*Plus displays output similar to the following:
ORA-00279: change 53577 generated at 01/26/00 19:20:58 needed for thread 1
ORA-00289: suggestion : /oracle/arc_dest/arcr_1_802.arc
ORA-00280: change 53577 for thread 1 is in sequence #802
Specify log: [ for suggested | AUTO | FROM logsource | CANCEL ]
Similar messages are returned when you use an ALTER DATABASE ... RECOVER
statement. However, no prompt is displayed.
Oracle suggests archived redo log filenames by concatenating the current values of
the initialization parameters LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n (where n is the highest value
among all enabled, local destinations) and LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT and using log
history information from the control file. For example, the following are possible
settings for archived redo logs:
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1 = 'LOCATION = /oracle/arc_dest/'
LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT = arcr_%t_%s.arc
SELECT NAME FROM V$ARCHIVED_LOG;
NAME
-------------------------------
/oracle/arc_dest/arcr_1_467.arc
/oracle/arc_dest/arcr_1_468.arc
/oracle/arc_dest/arcr_1_469.arc
Thus, if all the required archived log files are mounted at the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_
1 destination, and if the value for LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT is never altered, then
Oracle can suggest and apply log files to complete media recovery automatically.
Recovering When Archived Logs Are in a Nondefault Location
Performing media recovery when archived logs are not in their default location
adds an extra step into the recovery procedure. You have the following mutually
exclusive options:
n Edit the LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n parameter that specifies the location of the
archived redo logs, then recover as usual.
n Use the SET statement in SQL*Plus to specify the nondefault log location before
recovery, or the LOGFILE parameter of the RECOVER command
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery: Overview
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-7
Resetting the Archived Log Destination
You can edit the initialization parameter file or issue ALTER SYSTEM statements to
change the default location of the archived redo logs.
To change the default archived log location before recovery:
1. Use an operating system utility to restore the archived logs to the nondefault
location. For example, enter:
% cp /disk3/arc_bak/* /disk2/tmp
2. Change the value for the archive log parameter to the desired nondefault
location. You can issue ALTER SYSTEM statements while the instance is started,
or edit the initialization parameter file and then start the database instance. For
example, while the instance is shut down edit the parameter file as follows:
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1 = 'LOCATION=/disk2/tmp/arc'
LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT = r_%t_%s.arc
3. Using SQL*Plus, start a new instance by specifying the edited initialization
parameter file, and then mount the database. For example, enter:
STARTUP MOUNT
4. Begin media recovery as usual. For example, enter:
RECOVER DATABASE
Overriding the Archived Log Destination
In some cases, you may want to override the current setting for the archiving
destination parameter as a source for redo log files. For example, assume that a
database is open and an offline tablespace must be recovered, but not enough space
is available to mount the necessary redo log files at the location specified by the
archiving destination parameter. In this case, use one of the following procedures.
To recover using logs in a nondefault location with SET LOGSOURCE:
1. Using an operating system utility, move the archived redo logs to an alternative
location. For example, enter:
% cp /disk1/oracle/arc_dest/* /disk2/temp
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery: Overview
4-8 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
2. Specify the alternative location within SQL*Plus for the recovery operation. Use
the LOGSOURCE parameter of the SET statement or the RECOVER ... FROM
clause of the ALTER DATABASE statement. For example, start SQL*Plus and run:
SET LOGSOURCE "/disk2/temp"
3. Recover the offline tablespace:
RECOVER AUTOMATIC TABLESPACE offline_tbsp
4. Alternatively, you can avoid running SET LOGSOURCE and simply run:
RECOVER AUTOMATIC TABLESPACE offline_tbsp FROM "/disk2/temp"
Responding to Unsuccessful Application of Redo Logs
If you are using SQL*Plus's recovery options (not SQL statements), then each time
Oracle successfully applies a redo log file, the following message is returned:
Log applied.
Oracle then prompts for the next log in the sequence or, if the most recently applied
log is the last required log, terminates recovery.
If the suggested file is incorrect or you provide an incorrect filename, then Oracle
returns an error message. For example, you may see something like:
ORA-00308: cannot open archived log "/oracle/work/arc_dest/arcr_1_811.arc"
ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status
SVR4 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3
Recovery cannot continue until the required redo log file is applied. If Oracle
returns an error message after supplying a redo log filename, then the following
responses are possible.
Note: Overriding the redo log source does not affect the archive
redo log destination for online redo logs groups being archived.
Error Possible Cause Solution
ORA-27037: unable to
obtain file status
Entered wrong filename.
Log is missing.
Reenter correct filename.
Restore backup archived redo log.
Performing Complete User-Managed Media Recovery
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-9
Performing Complete User-Managed Media Recovery
When you perform complete recovery, you recover the backups to the current SCN.
You can either recover the whole database at once or recover individual tablespaces
or datafiles. Because you do not have to open the database with the RESETLOGS
option after complete recovery as you do after incomplete recovery, you have the
option of recovering some datafiles at one time and the remaining datafiles later.
This section describes the steps necessary to complete media recovery operations,
and includes the following topics:
n Performing Closed Database Recovery
n Performing Datafile Recovery in an Open Database
Performing Closed Database Recovery
This section describes steps to perform complete recovery while the database is not
open. You can recover either all damaged datafiles in one operation, or perform
individual recovery of each damaged datafile in separate operations.
Perform the media recovery in the following stages:
1. Prepare for closed database recovery as described in "Preparing for Closed
Database Recovery" on page 4-10.
2. Restore the necessary files as described in "Restoring Backups of the Damaged
or Missing Files" on page 4-10.
3. Recover the restored datafiles as described in "Recovering the Database" on
page 4-11.
ORA-27047: unable
to read the header
block of file
The log may have been
partially written or
become corrupted.
If you can locate an uncorrupted or
complete log copy, then apply the
intact copy and continue recovery.
If no copy of the log exists and you
know the time of the last valid redo
entry, then you must use incomplete
recovery. Restart recovery from the
beginning, including restoring
backups.
See Also: Oracle9i Backup and Recovery Concepts to familiarize
yourself with fundamental recovery concepts and strategies
Error Possible Cause Solution
Performing Complete User-Managed Media Recovery
4-10 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Preparing for Closed Database Recovery
In this stage, you shut down the instance and inspect the media device that is
causing the problem.
To prepare for closed database recovery:
1. If the database is open, then shut it down with the ABORT option:
SHUTDOWN ABORT
2. If you are recovering from a media error, then correct it if possible. If the
hardware problem that caused the media failure was temporary, and if the data
was undamaged (for example, a disk or controller power failure), then no
media recovery is required: simply start the database and resume normal
operations. If you cannot repair the problem, then proceed to the next step.
Restoring Backups of the Damaged or Missing Files
In this stage, you restore all necessary backups.
To restore the necessary files:
1. Determine which datafiles to recover by using the techniques described in
"Determining Which Datafiles Require Recovery" on page 3-5.
2. If the files are permanently damaged, then identify the most recent backups for
the damaged files. Restore only the datafiles damaged by the media failure: do
not restore any undamaged datafiles or any online redo log files.
For example, if /oracle/dbs/tbs_10.f is the only damaged file, then you
may consult your records and determine that /oracle/backup/tbs_
10.backup is the most recent backup of this file. If you do not have a backup
of a specific datafile, then you may be able to create an empty replacement file
that can be recovered.
3. Use an operating system utility to restore the files to their default location or to
a new location. Restore the necessary files as described in Chapter 3,
"Performing User-Managed Restore Operations". For example, a UNIX user
restoring /oracle/dbs/tbs_10.f to its default location might enter:
% cp /oracle/backup/tbs_10.backup /oracle/dbs/tbs_10.f
Performing Complete User-Managed Media Recovery
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-11
Follow these guidelines when determining where to restore datafile backups:
Recovering the Database
In the final stage, you recover the datafiles that you have restored.
To recover the restored datafiles:
1. Connect to the database with administrator privileges, then start a new instance
and mount, but do not open, the database. For example, enter:
STARTUP MOUNT
2. Obtain the datafile names and statuses of all datafiles by checking the list of
datafiles that normally accompanies the current control file or querying the
V$DATAFILE view. For example, enter:
SELECT NAME,STATUS FROM V$DATAFILE;
3. Ensure that all datafiles of the database are online. All datafiles of the database
requiring recovery must be online unless an offline tablespace was taken offline
normally or is part of a read-only tablespace. For example, to guarantee that a
datafile named /oracle/dbs/tbs_10.f is online, enter the following:
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE '/oracle/dbs/tbs_10.f' ONLINE;
If a specified datafile is already online, then Oracle ignores the statement. If you
prefer, create a script to bring all datafiles online at once as in the following:
SPOOL onlineall.sql
SELECT 'ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE '''||name||''' ONLINE;' FROM V$DATAFILE;
SPOOL OFF
SQL> @onlineall
If . . . Then . . .
The hardware problem is repaired
and you can restore the datafiles to
their default locations
Restore the datafiles to their default locations and
begin media recovery.
The hardware problem persists and
you cannot restore datafiles to their
original locations
Restore the datafiles to an alternative storage
device. Indicate the new location of these files in the
control file. Use the operation described in
"Renaming and Relocating Datafiles" in the Oracle9i
Database Administrator’s Guide, as necessary.
Performing Complete User-Managed Media Recovery
4-12 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
4. Issue the statement to recover the database, tablespace, or datafile. For example,
enter one of the following RECOVER command:
RECOVER DATABASE # recovers whole database
RECOVER TABLESPACE users # recovers specific tablespace
RECOVER DATAFILE '/oracle/dbs/tbs_10'; # recovers specific datafile
Follow these guidelines when deciding which statement to execute:
5. If you choose not to automate the application of archived logs, then you must
accept or reject each required redo log that Oracle prompts you for. If you
automate recovery, then Oracle applies the necessary logs automatically. Oracle
continues until all required archived and online redo log files have been applied
to the restored datafiles.
6. Oracle notifies you when media recovery is complete:
Media recovery complete.
If no archived redo log files are required for complete media recovery, then
Oracle applies all necessary online redo log files and terminates recovery.
7. After recovery terminates, then open the database for use:
ALTER DATABASE OPEN;
Performing Datafile Recovery in an Open Database
It is possible for a media failure to occur while the database remains open, leaving
the undamaged datafiles online and available for use. Oracle automatically takes
the damaged datafiles offline—but not the tablespaces that contain them—if the
To . . . Then . . .
Recover all damaged files in one step Execute RECOVER DATABASE
Recover an individual tablespace Execute RECOVER TABLESPACE
Recover an individual damaged
datafile
Execute RECOVER DATAFILE
Parallelize recovery of the whole
database or an individual datafile
See "Performing Media Recovery in Parallel" on
page 4-25
See Also: "Performing User-Managed Media Recovery:
Overview" on page 4-2 for more information about applying redo
log files
Performing Complete User-Managed Media Recovery
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-13
database writer is unable to write to them. Queries that cannot read damaged files
return errors, but Oracle does not take the files offline because of the failed queries.
For example, you may run a query and see output such as:
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-01116: error in opening database file 11
ORA-01110: data file 11: ’/oracle/dbs/tbs_32.f’
ORA-27041: unable to open file
SVR4 Error: 2: No such file or directory
Additional information: 3
The media recovery procedure in this section cannot be used to perform complete
media recovery on the datafiles of the SYSTEM tablespace. If the media failure
damages any datafiles of the SYSTEM tablespace, then Oracle automatically shuts
down the database.
Perform media recovery in these stages:
1. Prepare the database for recovery by making sure it is open and taking the
tablespaces requiring recovery offline, as described in "Preparing for Open
Database Recovery" on page 4-13.
2. Restore the necessary files in the affected tablespaces as described in "Restoring
Backups of the Damaged or Missing Files" on page 4-14.
3. Recover the affected tablespaces as described in "Recovering Offline
Tablespaces in an Open Database" on page 4-14.
Preparing for Open Database Recovery
In this stage, you take affected tablespaces offline and inspect the media device that
is causing the problem.
See Also:
n "Determining Which Datafiles Require Recovery" on page 3-5
for more information about determining when recovery is
necessary
n "Performing Closed Database Recovery" on page 4-9 for
procedures for proceeding with complete media recovery of
SYSTEM tablespaces datafiles
Performing Complete User-Managed Media Recovery
4-14 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
To prepare for datafile recovery when the database is open:
1. If the database is open when you discover that recovery is required, take all
tablespaces containing damaged datafiles offline. For example, if tablespace
users contains damaged datafiles, enter:
ALTER TABLESPACE users OFFLINE TEMPORARY;
2. Correct the hardware problem that caused the media failure. If the hardware
problem cannot be repaired quickly, proceed with database recovery by
restoring damaged files to an alternative storage device.
Restoring Backups of the Damaged or Missing Files
In this stage, you restore all necessary backups in the offline tablespaces.
To restore datafiles in an open database:
1. If files are permanently damaged, then restore the most recent backup files of
only the datafiles damaged by the media failure. Do not restore undamaged
datafiles, online redo log files, or control files. If the hardware problem has been
repaired and the datafiles can be restored to their original locations, then do so.
If the hardware problem persists, then restore the datafiles to an alternative
storage device.
2. If you restored one or more damaged datafiles to alternative locations, rename
the datafiles in the control file of the database. For example, to change the
filename of the datafile in tablespace users you might enter:
ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE '/d1/oracle/dbs/tbs1.f' TO '/d3/oracle/dbs/tbs1.f';
Recovering Offline Tablespaces in an Open Database
In the final stage, you recover the datafiles in the offline tablespaces.
Note: In some circumstances, if you do not have a backup of a
specific datafile, you can use ALTER DATABASE CREATE DATAFILE
to create an empty replacement file that is recoverable.
See Also: Oracle9i SQL Reference for more information about
ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE
Performing Complete User-Managed Media Recovery
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-15
To recover offline tablespaces in an open database:
1. Connect to the database with administrator privileges. For example, connect as
SYSTEM to database prod1:
% sqlplus SYSTEM/manager@prod1
2. Start offline tablespace recovery of all damaged datafiles in one or more offline
tablespaces using one step. For example, recover the users and sales
tablespaces as follows:
RECOVER TABLESPACE users, sales # begins recovery on datafiles in users and sales
3. Oracle begins the roll forward phase of media recovery by applying the
necessary redo log files (archived and online) to reconstruct the restored
datafiles. Unless the applying of files is automated with RECOVER AUTOMATIC
or SET AUTORECOVERY ON, Oracle prompts for each required redo log file.
Oracle continues until all required archived redo log files have been applied to
the restored datafiles. The online redo log files are then automatically applied to
the restored datafiles to complete media recovery.
If no archived redo log files are required for complete media recovery, then
Oracle does not prompt for any. Instead, all necessary online redo log files are
applied, and media recovery is complete.
4. When the damaged tablespaces are recovered up to the moment that media
failure occurred, bring the offline tablespaces online. For example, to bring
tablespaces users and sales online, issue the following statements:
ALTER TABLESPACE users ONLINE;
ALTER TABLESPACE sales ONLINE;
Note: For maximum performance, use parallel recovery to recover
the datafiles. See "Performing Media Recovery in Parallel" on
page 4-25.
See Also: Oracle9i Database Administrator’s Guide for more
information about creating datafiles
Performing Incomplete User-Managed Media Recovery
4-16 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Performing Incomplete User-Managed Media Recovery
This section describes the steps necessary to complete the different types of
incomplete media recovery operations, and includes the following topics:
n Preparing for Incomplete Recovery
n Restoring Datafiles Before Performing Incomplete Recovery
n Performing Cancel-Based Incomplete Recovery
n Performing Time-Based Incomplete Recovery
n Performing Change-Based Incomplete Recovery
Note that if your database is affected by seasonal time changes (for example,
daylight savings time), then you may experience a problem if a time appears twice
in the redo log and you want to recover to the second, or later time. To handle time
changes, perform cancel-based or change-based recovery.
Preparing for Incomplete Recovery
In this phase, you examine the source of the media problem.
To prepare for cancel-based recovery:
1. If you are uncertain about performing incomplete media recovery, then make a
whole backup of the database—all datafiles, a control file, and the parameter
files of the database—as a precautionary measure in case an error occurs during
the recovery procedure.
2. If the database is still open and incomplete media recovery is necessary, then
terminate the instance:
SHUTDOWN ABORT
3. If a media failure occurred, correct the hardware problem that caused the
failure. If the hardware problem cannot be repaired quickly, then proceed with
database recovery by restoring damaged files to an alternative storage device.
Restoring Datafiles Before Performing Incomplete Recovery
In this phase, you restore a whole database backup.
To restore the files necessary for cancel-based recovery and bring them online:
1. If the current control files do not match the physical structure of the database at
the intended time of recovery, then restore a backup control file as described in
Performing Incomplete User-Managed Media Recovery
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-17
"Restoring and Re-Creating Control Files" on page 3-8. The restored control file
should reflect the database's physical file structure at the point at which
incomplete media recovery should finish. To determine which control file
backup to use:
n Review the list of files that corresponds to the current control file and each
control file backup to determine the correct control file to use.
n If necessary, replace all current control files of the database with the correct
control file backup.
n Alternatively, create a new control file to replace the missing one.
2. Restore backups of all the datafiles of the database. All backups used to replace
existing datafiles must have been taken before the intended time of recovery.
For example, if you intend to recover to January 2 at 2:00 p.m., then restore all
datafiles with backups completed before this time. Follow these guidelines:
Note: If you are unable to restore a control file backup to one of
the CONTROL_FILES locations, then edit the initialization
parameter file so that this CONTROL_FILES location is removed.
If . . . Then . . .
You do not have a backup of a datafile Create an empty replacement file that can be
recovered as described in "Re-Creating
Datafiles When Backups Are Unavailable" on
page 3-7.
A datafile was added after the intended
time of recovery
Do not restore a backup of this file because it
will no longer be used for the database after
recovery completes.
The hardware problem causing the failure
has been solved and all datafiles can be
restored to their default locations
Restore the files as described in "Restoring
Datafiles" on page 3-6 and skip Step 5 of this
procedure.
A hardware problem persists Restore damaged datafiles to an alternative
storage device.
Note: Files in read-only tablespaces should be offline if you are
using a control file backup. Otherwise, the recovery will try to
update the headers of the read-only files.
Performing Incomplete User-Managed Media Recovery
4-18 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
3. Start SQL*Plus and connect to Oracle with administrator privileges. For
example, enter:
% sqlplus SYS/change_on_install@prod1
4. Start a new instance and mount the database:
STARTUP MOUNT
5. If one or more damaged datafiles were restored to alternative locations in
Step 2, then indicate the new locations of these files to the control file of the
associated database. For example, enter:
ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE '/oracle/dbs/df2.f' TO '/oracle/newloc/df2.f';
6. Obtain the datafile names and statuses of all datafiles by checking the list of
datafiles that normally accompanies the current control file or querying the
V$DATAFILE view. For example, enter:
SELECT NAME,STATUS FROM V$DATAFILE;
7. Ensure that all datafiles of the database are online. All datafiles of the database
requiring recovery must be online unless an offline tablespace was taken offline
normally or is part of a read-only tablespace. For example, to guarantee that a
datafile named /oracle/dbs/tbs_10.f is online, enter the following:
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE '/oracle/dbs/tbs_10.f' ONLINE;
If a specified datafile is already online, Oracle ignores the statement. If you
prefer, create a script to bring all datafiles online at once as in the following:
SPOOL onlineall.sql
SELECT 'ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE '''||name||''' ONLINE;' FROM V$DATAFILE;
SPOOL OFF
SQL> @onlineall
Performing Cancel-Based Incomplete Recovery
In cancel-based recovery, recovery proceeds by prompting you with the suggested
filenames of archived redo log files. Recovery stops when you specify CANCEL
instead of a filename or when all redo has been applied to the datafiles.
Cancel-based recovery is better than change-based or time-based recovery if you
want to control which archived log terminates recovery. For example, you may
know that you have lost all logs past sequence 1234, so you want to cancel recovery
after log 1233 is applied.
Performing Incomplete User-Managed Media Recovery
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-19
You should perform cancel-based media recovery in these stages:
1. Prepare for recovery by backing up the database and correct any media failures
as described in "Preparing for Incomplete Recovery" on page 4-16.
2. Restore backup datafiles as described in "Restoring Datafiles Before Performing
Incomplete Recovery" on page 4-16. If you have a current control file, then do
not restore a backup control file.
3. Perform media recovery on the restored database backup as described in the
following procedure.
To perform cancel-based recovery:
1. Start SQL*Plus and connect to Oracle with administrator privileges. For
example, enter:
% sqlplus ’/ AS SYSDBA’
2. Start a new instance and mount the database:
STARTUP MOUNT
3. Begin cancel-based recovery by issuing the following command:
RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL CANCEL
If you are using a backup control file with this incomplete recovery, then specify
the USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE option in the RECOVER command.
RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL CANCEL USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE
4. Oracle applies the necessary redo log files to reconstruct the restored datafiles.
Oracle supplies the name it expects to find from LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1 and
requests you to stop or proceed with applying the log file. Note that if the
control file is a backup, then you must supply the names of the online logs if
you want to apply the changes in these logs.
Note: If you fail to specify the UNTIL clause on the RECOVER
command, then you will not be able to open the database until a
complete recovery is done.
Performing Incomplete User-Managed Media Recovery
4-20 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
5. Continue applying redo log files until the last log has been applied to the
restored datafiles, then cancel recovery by executing the following command:
CANCEL
Oracle returns a message indicating whether recovery is successful. Note that if
you cancel recovery before all the datafiles have been recovered to a consistent
SCN and then try to open the database, you will get an ORA-1113 error if more
recovery is necessary for the file. You can query V$RECOVER_FILE to
determine whether more recovery is needed, or if a backup of a datafile was not
restored prior to starting incomplete recovery.
6. Open the database in RESETLOGS mode. You must always reset the online logs
after incomplete recovery or recovery with a backup control file. For example,
enter:
ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
Performing Time-Based Incomplete Recovery
This section describes how to perform the time-based media recovery procedure in
the following stages:
1. Prepare for recovery by backing up the database and correct any media failures
as described in "Preparing for Incomplete Recovery" on page 4-16.
2. Restore backup datafiles as described in "Restoring Datafiles Before Performing
Incomplete Recovery" on page 4-16. If you have a current control file, then do
not restore a backup control file.
3. Perform media recovery on the restored backup by using the following
procedure.
Note: If you use an Oracle Real Application Clusters
configuration, and you are performing incomplete recovery or
using a backup control file, then Oracle can only compute the name
of the first archived redo log file from the first thread. The first redo
log file from the other threads must be supplied by the user. After
the first log file in a given thread has been supplied, Oracle can
suggest the names of the subsequent log files in this thread.
See Also: "Opening the Database After User-Managed Media
Recovery" on page 4-26
Performing Incomplete User-Managed Media Recovery
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-21
To perform time-based recovery:
1. Issue the RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL TIME statement to begin time-based
recovery. The time is always specified using the following format, delimited by
single quotation marks: 'YYYY-MM-DD:HH24:MI:SS'. The following
statement recovers the database up to a specified time:
RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL TIME '2000-12-31:12:47:30'
If a backup of the control file is being used with this incomplete recovery (that
is, a control file backup or re-created control file was restored), then indicate this
in the statement used to start recovery. The following statement recovers the
database up to a specified time using a control file backup:
RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL TIME '2000-12-31:12:47:30' USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE
2. Apply the necessary redo log files to recover the restored datafiles. Unless the
application of files is automated, Oracle supplies the name it expects to find
from LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1 and requests you to stop or proceed with
applying the log file. If the control file is a backup, then you after the archived
logs have been applied you must supply the names of the online logs in order
to apply their changes.
3. Apply redo logs until the last required redo log has been applied to the restored
datafiles. Oracle automatically terminates the recovery when it reaches the
correct time, and returns a message indicating whether recovery is successful.
4. Open the database in RESETLOGS mode. You must always reset the online logs
after incomplete recovery or recovery with a backup control file. For example,
enter:
ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
Performing Change-Based Incomplete Recovery
This section describes how to perform recovery to a specified SCN in these stages:
1. Prepare for recovery by backing up the database and correct any media failures
as described in "Preparing for Incomplete Recovery" on page 4-16.
2. Restore backup datafiles as described in "Restoring Datafiles Before Performing
Incomplete Recovery" on page 4-16. If you have a current control file, then do
not restore a backup control file.
See Also: "Opening the Database After User-Managed Media
Recovery" on page 4-26
Recovering a Database in NOARCHIVELOG Mode
4-22 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
3. Perform media recovery on the restored backup by using the following
procedure.
To perform change-based recovery:
1. Begin change-based recovery, specifying the SCN for recovery termination. The
SCN is specified as a decimal number without quotation marks. For example, to
recover through SCN 10034 issue:
RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL CHANGE 10034;
2. Oracle begins the roll forward phase of media recovery by applying the
necessary redo log files (archived and online) to reconstruct the restored
datafiles. Unless the application of files is automated, Oracle supplies the name
it expects to find from LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1 and requests you to stop or
proceed with applying the log file. If the control file is a backup, then you after
the archived logs have been applied you must supply the names of the online
logs in order to apply their changes.
3. Continue applying redo log files until the last required redo log file has been
applied to the restored datafiles. Oracle automatically terminates the recovery
when it reaches the correct SCN, and returns a message indicating whether
recovery is successful.
4. Open the database in RESETLOGS mode. You must always reset the online logs
after incomplete recovery or recovery with a backup control file. For example,
enter:
ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
Recovering a Database in NOARCHIVELOG Mode
If a database is in NOARCHIVELOG mode and a media failure damages some or all of
the datafiles, then the only option for recovery is usually to restore the most recent
whole database backup. If you are using Export to supplement regular backups,
then you can also attempt to restore the database by importing an exported backup
of the database into a re-created database or a database restored from an old
backup.
The disadvantage of NOARCHIVELOG mode is that to recover the database from the
time of the most recent full backup up to the time of the media failure, you have to
reenter manually all of the changes executed in that interval. If the database was in
See Also: "Opening the Database After User-Managed Media
Recovery" on page 4-26
Recovering a Database in NOARCHIVELOG Mode
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-23
ARCHIVELOG mode, however, the redo log covering this interval would have been
available as archived log files or online log files. Using archived redo logs would
have enabled you to use complete or incomplete recovery to reconstruct your
database, thereby minimizing the amount of lost work.
If you have a database damaged by media failure and operating in NOARCHIVELOG
mode, and if you want to restore from your most recent consistent whole database
backup (your only option at this point), then follow the procedures in this section.
Restoring the Database to its Default Location
In this scenario, the media failure is repaired so that you are able to restore all
database files to their original location.
To restore the most recent whole database backup to the default location:
1. If the database is open, then shut down the database. For example, enter:
SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
2. If possible, correct the media problem so that the backup database files can be
restored to their original locations.
3. Restore the most recent whole database backup with operating system
commands as described in "Restoring Datafiles" on page 3-6. Restore all of the
datafiles and control files of the whole database backup, not just the damaged
files. The following example restores a whole database backup:
% cp /oracle/work/BACKUP/tbs* /oracle/dbs # restores datafiles
% cp /oracle/work/BACKUP/cf.f /oracle/dbs # restores control file
4. Because online redo logs are not backed up, you cannot restore them with the
datafiles and control files. In order to allow Oracle to reset the online redo logs,
you must first mimic incomplete recovery:
RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL CANCEL
CANCEL
5. Open the database in RESETLOGS mode. This command resets the current redo
log sequence to 1:
ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
A RESETLOGS operation invalidates all redo in the online logs. Restoring from
a whole database backup and then resetting the log discards all changes to the
database made from the time the backup was taken to the time of the failure.
Recovering a Database in NOARCHIVELOG Mode
4-24 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Restoring the Database to a New Location
In this scenario, you restore the database files to an alternative location because the
original location is damaged by a media failure.
To restore the most recent whole database backup to a new location:
1. If the database is open, then shut it down. For example, enter:
SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
2. Restore all of the datafiles and control files of the whole database backup, not
just the damaged files. If the hardware problem has not been corrected and
some or all of the database files must be restored to alternative locations, then
restore the whole database backup to a new location. For example, enter:
% cp /disk2/BACKUP/tbs* /disk3/oracle/dbs # default location
% cp /disk2/BACKUP/cf.f /disk3/oracle/dbs # new location
% cp /disk2/BACKUP/system01.dbf /disk4/temp # new location
3. If necessary, edit the restored parameter file to indicate the new location of the
control files. For example:
CONTROL_FILES = "/disk3/oracle/dbs/cf.f"
4. Start an instance using the restored and edited parameter file and mount, but
do not open, the database. For example:
STARTUP MOUNT
5. If the restored datafile filenames will be different, then rename the restored
datafiles in the control file. For example, you might enter:
ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE '/disk1/oracle/dbs/system01.dbf' TO
'/disk4/temp/system01.dbf';
6. If the online redo logs were located on a damaged disk, and the hardware
problem is not corrected, then specify a new location for each online log. For
example, enter:
ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE '/disk1/oracle/dbs/log1.f' TO '/disk3/oracle/dbs/log1.f';
ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE '/disk1/oracle/dbs/log2.f' TO '/disk3/oracle/dbs/log2.f';
7. Because online redo logs are not backed up, you cannot restore them with the
datafiles and control files. In order to allow Oracle to reset the online redo logs,
you must first mimic incomplete recovery:
RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL CANCEL;
CANCEL;
Performing Media Recovery in Parallel
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-25
8. Open the database in RESETLOGS mode. This command resets the current redo
log sequence to 1:
ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
A RESETLOGS operation invalidates all redo in the online logs. Restoring from
a whole database backup and then resetting the log discards all changes to the
database made from the time the backup was taken to the time of the failure.
Performing Media Recovery in Parallel
Use parallel media recovery to tune the roll forward phase of media recovery. In
parallel media recovery, Oracle uses a "division of labor" approach to allocate
different processes to different data blocks while rolling forward, thereby making
the procedure more efficient. For example, if parallel recovery is performed with
PARALLEL 4, and only one datafile is recovered, then four spawned processes read
blocks from the datafile and apply records instead of only one process.
The SQL*Plus RECOVER PARALLEL command specifies parallel media recovery (the
default is NOPARALLEL). This command selects a degree of parallelism equal to the
number of CPUs available on all participating instances times the value of the
PARALLEL_THREADS_PER_CPU initialization parameter.
The format for the RECOVER PARALLEL command is the following:
RECOVER PARALLEL integer;
The integer variable sets the number of recovery processes used for media
recovery. If you use a Real Application Clusters configuration, then Oracle decides
See Also: Oracle9i Database Administrator’s Guide for more
information about renaming and relocating datafiles, and Oracle9i
SQL Reference for more information about ALTER DATABASE
RENAME FILE
Note: Typically, recovery is I/O-bound on reads to data blocks.
Parallelism at the block level may only help recovery performance
if it increases total I/Os, for example, by bypassing operating
system restrictions on asynchronous I/Os. Systems with efficient
asynchronous I/O typical see little improvement from using
parallel media recovery.
Opening the Database After User-Managed Media Recovery
4-26 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
how to distribute these recovery processes among the instances. If integer is not
specified, then Oracle picks a default number of recovery processes.
Opening the Database After User-Managed Media Recovery
Whenever you perform incomplete recovery or recovery with a backup control file,
you must reset the online logs when you open the database. The new version of the
reset database is called a new incarnation. All archived logs generated after the
point of the RESETLOGS on the old incarnation are invalid in the new incarnation.
If you perform complete recovery, then you do not have to open the database with
the RESETLOGS option. All previous backups and archived logs created during the
lifetime of this incarnation of the database are valid.
This section contains the following topics:
n About RESETLOGS Operations
n Determining Whether to Reset the Online Redo Logs
n Following Up After a RESETLOGS Operation
n Recovering a Backup Created Before a RESETLOGS
About RESETLOGS Operations
Whenever you open the database with the RESETLOGS option, all datafiles get a
new RESETLOGS SCN and time stamp, and the log sequence number is reset to 1.
Archived redo logs also have these two values in their file header. Because Oracle
will not apply an archived redo log to a datafile unless the RESETLOGS SCN and
time stamps match, the RESETLOGS operations prevents you from corrupting your
datafiles with old archived logs.
Note: The RECOVERY_PARALLELISM initialization parameter
specifies the number of concurrent recovery processes for instance
or crash recovery only. Media recovery is not affected.
See Also:
n Oracle9i Database Performance Tuning Guide and Reference for
more information on parallel recovery
n SQL*Plus User’s Guide and Reference for more information about
the SQL*Plus RECOVER ... PARALLEL statement
Opening the Database After User-Managed Media Recovery
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-27
Figure 4–1 shows the case of a database that can only be recovered to log sequence
2500 because an archived redo log is missing. At log sequence 4000, the database
crashes. You restore the log sequence 1000 backup and prepare for complete
recovery. Unfortunately, one of your archived redo logs is corrupted. The log before
the missing log contains log sequence 2500, so you recover to this point and open
with the RESETLOGS option. The log sequence is now reset to 1.
As the diagram illustrates, you generate new changes in the new incarnation of the
database, eventually reaching log sequence 4000. The changes between log
sequence 2500 and log sequence 4000 for the new incarnation of the database are
completely different from the changes between log sequence 2500 and log sequence
4000 for the old incarnation. Oracle does not allow you to apply logs from an old
incarnation to the new incarnation. You cannot restore backups from before log
sequence 2500 in the old incarnation to the new incarnation.
Opening the Database After User-Managed Media Recovery
4-28 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Figure 4–1 Creating a New Database Incarnation
Determining Whether to Reset the Online Redo Logs
To open the database with the RESETLOGS option, all datafiles must be recovered to
the same SCN. If a backup control file is restored, then the backup control file must
also be recovered to the same SCN.
The RESETLOGS option is always required after incomplete media recovery or
recovery using a backup control file. Resetting the redo log does the following:
n Discards any redo information that was not applied during recovery, ensuring
that it will never be applied.
n Reinitializes the control file metadata about online redo logs and redo threads.
n Erases the contents of the online redo logs.
2
3
log sequence
1000
log sequence
2500
log sequence
4000
Restore
database
Database crashes
Recover database
to 2500 and then
OPEN RESETLOGS
Generate redo for
new incarnation
log sequence
1000
log sequence
2000
log sequence
3000
4
log sequence
4000
1
Opening the Database After User-Managed Media Recovery
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-29
n Creates the online redo log files if they do not currently exist.
n Resets the log sequence number to 1.
.
Use the following rules when deciding whether to specify RESETLOGS or
NORESETLOGS:
n Always specify the RESETLOGS option after incomplete recovery. For example,
you must have specified a previous time or SCN, not one in the future.
n Always specify RESETLOGS if you used a backup of the control file in recovery,
regardless of whether you performed complete or incomplete recovery.
n Specify either no option or the NORESETLOGS option after performing complete
media recovery (unless you used a backup control file, in which case you must
open with the RESETLOGS option).
n Avoid specifying the RESETLOGS option if you are using the archived logs of
the database for a standby database. If you must reset the online logs, then you
have to re-create the standby database.
Executing the ALTER DATABASE OPEN Statements
To preserve the log sequence number when opening a database after media
recovery, execute either of the following statements:
ALTER DATABASE OPEN NORESETLOGS;
ALTER DATABASE OPEN;
To reset the log sequence number when opening a database after recovery and
thereby create a new incarnation of the database, execute the following statement:
ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
If you open with the RESETLOGS option, Oracle returns different messages
depending on whether recovery was complete or incomplete. If the recovery was
complete, then the following message appears in the alert_SID.log file:
RESETLOGS after complete recovery through change scn
Caution: Resetting the redo log discards all changes to the
database contained in the online logs. Hence, after opening
RESETLOGS, you cannot perform recovery again to a point within
the reset logs.
Opening the Database After User-Managed Media Recovery
4-30 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
If the recovery was incomplete, then this message is reported in the alert_
SID.log file, where scn refers to the end point of incomplete recovery:
RESETLOGS after incomplete recovery UNTIL CHANGE scn
If you attempt to OPEN RESETLOGS when you should not, or if you neglect to reset
the log when you should, then Oracle returns an error and does not open the
database. Correct the problem and try again.
Following Up After a RESETLOGS Operation
This section describes actions that you should perform after opening the database in
RESETLOGS mode.
Making a Whole Database Backup
Immediately shut down the database normally and make a full database backup.
Otherwise, you will not be able to recover changes made after you reset the logs.
Until you take a full backup, the only way to recover is to repeat the procedures you
just finished, up to resetting the logs. You do not need to make another backup of
the database if you did not reset the log sequence.
In general, backups made before a RESETLOGS operation are not allowed in the
new incarnation. There is, however, an exception to the rule: you can restore a
pre-RESETLOGS backup only if Oracle does not need to access archived redo logs
from before the RESETLOGS to perform recovery.
Checking the Alert Log
After opening the database using the RESETLOGS option, check the alert_
SID.log to see whether Oracle detected inconsistencies between the data
dictionary and the control file, for example, a datafile that the data dictionary
includes but does not list in the new control file.
If a datafile exists in the data dictionary but not in the new control file, then Oracle
creates a placeholder entry in the control file under MISSINGnnnn (where nnnn is
the file number in decimal). MISSINGnnnn is flagged in the control file as being
offline and requiring media recovery.
See Also: "About User-Managed Media Recovery Problems" on
page 5-2 for descriptions of situations that can cause ALTER
DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS to fail
See Also: "Recovering a Backup Created Before a RESETLOGS"
on page 4-31
Opening the Database After User-Managed Media Recovery
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-31
The datafile corresponding to MISSINGnnnn can be made accessible by renaming
MISSINGnnnn so that it points to the datafile only if the datafile was read-only or
offline normal between the time the backup was taken to the point where the
RESETLOGS is issued.On the other hand, if MISSINGnnnn corresponds to a datafile
that was not read-only or offline normal during the recovery period, then the
rename operation cannot be used to make the datafile accessible, because the
datafile requires media recovery that is precluded by the results of RESETLOGS. In
this case, you must drop the tablespace containing the datafile.
In contrast, if a datafile indicated in the control file is not in the data dictionary,
Oracle removes references to it from the new control file. In both cases, Oracle
includes an message in the alert_SID.log file to let you know what was found.
Recovering a Backup Created Before a RESETLOGS
In releases prior to Oracle8, DBAs typically backed up online logs when performing
cold consistent backups to avoid opening the database with the RESETLOGS option
(if they were planning to restore immediately).
A classic example of this technique was disk maintenance, which required the
database to be backed up, deleted, the disks reconfigured, and the database
restored. DBAs realized that by not restarting in RESETLOGS mode, they would not
have to back up the database immediately after the restore. This backup was
required since it was impossible to perform recovery on a backup taken before the
RESETLOGS—especially if any errors occurred after resetting the logs.
Restoring Backups Created Before a RESETLOGS
You can restore the following backups made before a RESETLOGS in a new
incarnation:
n Backups of a tablespace made after it was made read-only (only if it was not
made read/write again before the RESETLOGS)
n Backups of a tablespace after it was taken offline-normal (only if it was not
brought online again before the RESETLOGS)
n Consistent backups of read/write tablespaces made after recovery ends and
before you open RESETLOGS, that is, you do not perform further recovery or
alter the datafiles between the backup and the RESETLOGS—but only if you
have a control file that is valid after you open RESETLOGS
You are prevented from restoring backups of read/write tablespaces that were not
made immediately before the RESETLOGS. This restriction applies even if no
changes were made to the datafiles in the read/write tablespace between the
Opening the Database After User-Managed Media Recovery
4-32 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
backup and the ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS. Because the checkpoint in the
datafile header of a backup will be older than the checkpoint in the control file,
Oracle has to search the archived logs to determine whether changes need to be
applied—and the archived logs generated prior to the RESETLOGS are not valid in
the new incarnation.
Restoring a Backup Created Before a RESETLOGS: Scenario
The following scenario illustrates a situation when you can use a backup created
before a RESETLOGS. Suppose you wish to perform hardware striping
reconfiguration, which requires the database files to be backed up and deleted, the
hardware reconfigured, and the database restored.
On Friday night you perform the following actions:
1. Shut down the database consistently. For example:
SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
2. Perform a whole database backup. For example, enter
% cp /oracle/dbs/* /oracle/backup
3. Perform operating system maintenance.
4. Restore the datafiles and control files from the backup that you just made. For
example, enter:
% cp /oracle/backup/* /oracle/dbs
5. Mount the database. For example, enter:
STARTUP MOUNT
6. Initiate cancel-based recovery. For example, enter:
RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL CANCEL
7. Open the database with the RESETLOGS option. For example, enter:
ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
On Saturday morning the scheduled jobs run, generating archived logs. If a
hardware error occurs Saturday night that requires you to restore the whole
Note: At this point you must not reopen the database.
Interrupting User-Managed Media Recovery
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-33
database, then you can restore the backup taken immediately before opening with
the RESETLOGS option, and roll forward using the logs produced on Saturday.
On Saturday night you do the following:
1. Terminate the instance (if it still exists). For example, enter:
SHUTDOWN ABORT
2. Restore all damaged files from the backup made on Friday night. For example,
enter:
% cp /oracle/backup/* /oracle/dbs
3. Begin complete recovery, applying all the archived logs produced on Saturday.
Use SET AUTORECOVERY ON to automate the log application. For example,
enter:
SET AUTORECOVERY ON
RECOVER DATABASE
4. Open the database. For example, enter:
STARTUP
In this scenario, if you had opened the database after the Friday night backup and
before opening the database with RESETLOGS, or, if you did not have a control file
from after opening the database, then you would not be able to use the Friday night
backup to roll forward. You must have a backup after opening the database with the
RESETLOGS option in order to be able to recover.
Interrupting User-Managed Media Recovery
If you start media recovery and must then interrupt it, for example, because a
recovery operation must end for the night and resume the next morning, then take
either of the following actions:
n Enter the word CANCEL when prompted for a redo log file.
n Use your operating system’s interrupt signal if you must terminate when
recovering an individual datafile, or when automated recovery is in progress.
Note: If you have the current control file, do not restore it;
otherwise you must restore a control file that was valid after
opening the database with RESETLOGS.
User-Managed Media Recovery Restrictions
4-34 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
After recovery is canceled, you can resume it later with the RECOVER command.
Recovery resumes where it left off when it was canceled.
Several factors may cause you to restart recovery. For example, if you want to
restart with a different backup or want to use the same backup but need to change
the end time to an earlier point in time than you initially specified, then the entire
operation must recommence by restoring a backup.
If you are recovering parts of database with RECOVER TABLESPACE or RECOVER
DATAFILE, then you will have to restart recovery and finish recovery in order to
make these parts of the database available.
If you are performing incomplete recovery of the whole database, then you may be
able to open the database read only or RESETLOGS after canceling media recovery.
This strategy can succeed if all datafiles have been recovered to a consistent SCN,
and also works even after interrupting media recovery. If not all datafiles have been
recovered to a consistent SCN, then the RESETLOGS may fail, requiring you to
perform more media recovery.
User-Managed Media Recovery Restrictions
Before performing media recovery, make sure that you understand the following
issues:
n User-Managed Recovery of Unrecoverable Tables and Indexes
n User-Managed Recovery of Read-Only Tablespaces with a Noncurrent Control
File
User-Managed Recovery of Unrecoverable Tables and Indexes
You can create tables and indexes with the CREATE TABLE AS SELECT statement.
You can also specify that Oracle create them as unrecoverable. When you create a
table or index as unrecoverable, Oracle does not generate redo log records for the
operation. Thus, you cannot recover objects created unrecoverable, even if you are
running in ARCHIVELOG mode.
Note: If you cannot afford to lose tables or indexes created
unrecoverable, then make a backup after the unrecoverable table or
index is created.
User-Managed Media Recovery Restrictions
Performing User-Managed Media Recovery 4-35
Be aware that when you perform media recovery, and some tables or indexes are
created as recoverable while others are unrecoverable, the unrecoverable objects are
marked logically corrupt by the RECOVER operation. Any attempt to access the
unrecoverable objects returns an ORA-01578 error message. Drop the
unrecoverable objects and re-create them if needed.
Because it is possible to create a table unrecoverable and then create a recoverable
index on that table, the index is not marked as logically corrupt after you perform
media recovery. The table was unrecoverable (and thus marked as corrupt after
recovery), however, so the index points to corrupt blocks. The index must be
dropped, and the table and index must be re-created if necessary.
User-Managed Recovery of Read-Only Tablespaces with a Noncurrent Control File
If you have a read-only tablespace on read-only or slow media, then you may
encounter errors or poor performance when performing media recovery with the
USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE option. This situation occurs when the backup
control file indicates that a tablespace was read/write when the control file was
backed up. In this case, media recovery may attempt to write to the files. For
read-only media, Oracle issues an error saying that it cannot write to the files. For
slow media, such as a hierarchical storage system backed up by tapes, performance
may suffer.
To avoid these recovery problems, use current control files rather than backups to
recover the database. If you need to use a backup control file, then you can also
avoid this problem if the read-only tablespace has not suffered a media failure.
Recovery of Read-Only or Slow Media with a Backup Control File
You have these alternatives for recovering read-only and slow media when using a
backup control file:
n Take datafiles from read-only tablespaces offline before doing recovery with a
backup control file, and then bring the files online at the end of media recovery.
n Use the correct version of the control file for the recovery. If the tablespace will
be read-only when recovery completes, then the control file must be from a time
when the tablespace was read-only. Similarly, if the tablespace will be
read/write at the end of recovery, then the control file must be from a time
when the tablespace was read/write.
See Also: Oracle9i Data Guard Concepts and Administration for
information about the impact of unrecoverable operations on a
standby database
User-Managed Media Recovery Restrictions
4-36 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Recovery of Read-Only Files with a Re-Created Control File
If a current or backup control file is unavailable for the recovery, then you can
execute a CREATE CONTROLFILE statement as described in "Losing All Current and
Backup Control Files" on page 3-13. Read-only files should not be listed in the
CREATE CONTROLFILE statement so that recovery can skip these files. No recovery
is required for read-only files unless you restored backups of these files from a time
when they were read/write.
After you create a new control file and attempt to mount and open the database,
Oracle performs a data dictionary check against the files listed in the control file.
Any files that were not listed in the CREATE CONTROLFILE statement but are
present in the data dictionary have entries created for them in the control file.
Oracle names these files as MISSINGnnnnn, where nnnnn is a five digit number
starting with 0.
After the database is open, rename the read-only files to their correct filenames by
executing the ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE statement for all the files whose
name is prefixed with MISSING.
To prepare for a scenario in which you might have to re-create the control file, run
the following statement when the database is mounted or open to obtain the
CREATE CONTROLFILE syntax:
ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO TRACE;
This SQL statement produces a trace file that you can edit and then use as a script to
re-create the control file in a recovery scenario. You can specify either the
RESETLOGS or NORESETLOGS (default) keywords to generate CREATE
CONTROLFILE ... RESETLOGS or CREATE CONTROLFILE ... NORESETLOGS
versions of the script.
Note that all the restrictions related to read-only files in CREATE CONTROLFILE
statements also apply to offline normal tablespaces, except that you need to bring
the tablespace online after the database is open. You should leave out tempfiles
from the CREATE CONTROLFILE statement and add them after database open.
See Also: "Backing Up the Control File to a Trace File" on
page 2-19 to learn about taking trace backups of the control file
Troubleshooting User-Managed Media Recovery 5-1
5
Troubleshooting User-Managed Media
Recovery
This chapter describes how to troubleshoot user-managed media recovery, and
includes the following topics:
n About User-Managed Media Recovery Problems
n Investigating the Media Recovery Problem: Phase 1
n Trying to Fix the Recovery Problem Without Corrupting Blocks: Phase 2
n Deciding Whether to Allow Recovery to Corrupt Blocks: Phase 3
n Allowing Recovery to Corrupt Blocks: Phase 4
n Performing Trial Recovery
About User-Managed Media Recovery Problems
5-2 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
About User-Managed Media Recovery Problems
Table 5–1 describes potential problems that can occur during media recovery.
Table 5–1 Media Recovery Problems
Problem Description
Missing or misnamed
archived log
Recovery stops because Oracle cannot find the archived log recorded in the
control file.
When you attempt to open
the database, error
ORA-1113 indicates that a
file needs media recovery
This error commonly occurs because:
n You are performing incomplete recovery but failed to restore all needed
datafile backups.
n Incomplete recovery stopped before datafiles reached a consistent SCN.
n You are recovering datafiles from an online backup, but not enough redo
was applied to make the datafiles consistent.
n You are performing recovery with a backup control file, and did not specify
the location of a needed online log.
n A datafile is undergoing media recovery when you attempt to open the
database.
n Datafiles needing recovery were not brought online before executing
RECOVER DATABASE, and so were not recovered.
Redo record problems Two possible cases are as follows:
n Recovery stops because of failed consistency checks, a problem called stuck
recovery. Stuck recovery can occur when an underlying operating system or
storage system loses a write issued by Oracle during normal operation of
the database.
n Oracle signals an internal error when applying the redo. This problem can
be caused by an Oracle bug. If checksums are not being used, it can also be
caused by corruptions to the redo or data blocks.
Corrupted archived logs Logs may be corrupted while they are stored on or copied between storage
systems. If DB_BLOCK_CHECKSUM is enabled, then Oracle usually signals
checksum errors. If checksumming is not on, then log corruption may appear as
a problem with redo.
About User-Managed Media Recovery Problems
Troubleshooting User-Managed Media Recovery 5-3
The symptoms of media recovery problems are usually external or internal errors
signaled during recovery. For example, an external error indicates that a redo block
or a data block has failed checksum verification checks. Internal errors can be
caused by either bugs in Oracle or errors arising from the underlying operating
system and hardware.
If media recovery encounters a problem while recovering a database backup,
whether it is a stuck recovery problem or a problem during redo application, Oracle
always stops and leaves the datafiles undergoing recovery in a consistent state, that
is, at an SCN preceding the failure. You can then do one of the following:
n Open the database read-only to investigate the problem.
n Open the database with the RESETLOGS option, as long as the requirements for
opening RESETLOGS have been met (as described in "Opening the Database
After User-Managed Media Recovery" on page 4-26). Note that the RESETLOGS
restrictions apply to opening the standby database as well, because a standby
database is updated by a form of media recovery.
In general, opening the database read-only or opening with the RESETLOGS option
require all online datafiles to be recovered to the same SCN. If this requirement is
not met, then Oracle may signal ORA-1113 or other errors when you attempt to
open. Some common causes of ORA-1113 are described in Table 5–1.
The basic methodology for responding to media recovery problems occurs in the
following phases:
1. Try to identify the cause of the problem. Run a trial recovery if needed.
Archived logs with
incompatible parallel redo
format
If you enable the parallel redo feature in Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2), then Oracle
generates redo logs in a new format. Prior releases of Oracle are unable to apply
parallel redo logs. However, Oracle9i Release 1 (9.0.1) can detect the parallel
redo format and indicate the inconsistency with the following error message:
External error 00303, 00000, "cannot process Parallel Redo".
See Also: Oracle9i Database Performance Tuning Guide and Reference to learn about
the parallel redo feature
Corrupted data blocks A datafile backup may have contained a corrupted data block, or the data block
may become corrupted either during recovery or when it was copied to the
backup. If checksums are being used, then Oracle signals a checksum error.
Otherwise, the problem may also appear as a redo corruption.
Random problems Memory corruptions and other transient problems can occur during recovery.
Table 5–1 Media Recovery Problems (Cont.)
Problem Description
Investigating the Media Recovery Problem: Phase 1
5-4 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
2. If the problem is related to missing logs or you suspect there is a log, memory,
or data block corruption, then try to resolve it using the methods described in
Table 5–2.
3. If you cannot resolve the problem using the methods described in Table 5–2,
then do one of the following:
– Open the database with the RESETLOGS option if you are recovering a
whole database backup. If you have performed serial media recovery, then
the database contains all the changes up to but not including the changes at
the SCN where the corruption occurred. No changes from this SCN onward
are in the recovered part of the database. If you have restored online
backups, opening RESETLOGS succeeds only if you have recovered through
all the ALTER ... END BACKUP operations in the redo stream.
– Proceed with recovery by allowing media recovery to corrupt data blocks.
After media recovery completes, try performing block media recovery
using RMAN.
– Call Oracle Support Services as a last resort.
Investigating the Media Recovery Problem: Phase 1
If media recovery encounters a problem, then obtain as much information as
possible after recovery halts. You do not want to waste time fixing the wrong
problem, which may in fact make matters worse.
The goal of this initial investigation is to determine whether the problem is caused
by incorrect setup, corrupted logs, corrupted data blocks, memory corruption, or
other problems. If you see a checksum error on a data block, then the data block is
corrupted. If you see a checksum error on a redo log block, then the redo log is
corrupted.
Sometimes the cause of a recovery problem can be difficult to determine.
Nevertheless, the methods in this chapter allow you to quickly recover a database
sometimes even when you do not completely understand the cause of the problem.
To investigate media recovery problems:
1. Examine the alert.log to see whether the error messages give general
information about the nature of the problem. For example, does the alert_
See Also: Oracle9i Recovery Manager User’s Guide to learn about
block media recovery
Trying to Fix the Recovery Problem Without Corrupting Blocks: Phase 2
Troubleshooting User-Managed Media Recovery 5-5
SID.log indicate any checksum failures? Does the alert_SID.log indicate
that media recovery may have to corrupt data blocks in order to continue?
2. Check the trace file generated by the Oracle process during recovery. It may
contain additional error information.
Trying to Fix the Recovery Problem Without Corrupting Blocks: Phase 2
Depending on the type of media recovery problem you suspect, you have different
solutions at your disposal. You can try one or a combination of the methods
described in Table 5–2. Note that these methods are fairly safe: in almost all cases,
they should not cause any damage to the database.
Table 5–2 Media Recovery Solutions
If you suspect . . . Then . . .
Missing/misnamed
archived logs
Determine whether you entered the correct filename. If you did, then check to see
whether the log is missing from the operating system. If it is missing, and you have a
backup, then restore the backup and apply the log. If you do not have a backup, then
if possible perform incomplete recovery up to the point of the missing log.
ORA-1113 for ALTER
DATABASE OPEN
Review the causes of this error in Table 5–1. Make sure that all read/write datafiles
requiring recovery are online. If you use a backup control file for recovery, then the
control file and datafiles must be at a consistent SCN for the database to be opened. If
you do not have the necessary redo, then you must re-create the control file.
Corrupt archived logs The log is corrupted if the checksum verification on the log redo block fails. If DB_
BLOCK_CHECKSUM is not enabled either during the recovery session or when the
database generated the redo, then recovery problems may be caused by corrupted
logs. If the log is corrupt and an alternate copy of the corrupt log is available, then try
to apply it and see whether this tactic fixes the problem.
The DB_BLOCK_CHECKSUM initialization parameter determines whether checksums
are computed for redo log and data blocks.
Trying to Fix the Recovery Problem Without Corrupting Blocks: Phase 2
5-6 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
If you cannot fix the problem with the methods described in Table 5–2, then there
may be no easy way to fix the problem without losing data. You have these options:
n Open the database with the RESETLOGS option (for whole database recovery).
This solution discards all changes after the point where the redo problem
occurred, but guarantees a logically consistent database.
n Allow media recovery to corrupt one or more data blocks and proceed with
media recovery. This option will only succeed if the alert_SID.log indicates
that recovery can continue if it is allowed to corrupt a data block, which should
be the case for most recovery problems. This option is best if it is important to
bring up the database quickly and recover all changes. If you are contemplating
this option as a last resort, then proceed to "Deciding Whether to Allow
Recovery to Corrupt Blocks: Phase 3" on page 5-7.
Archived logs with
incompatible parallel
redo format
If you are running an Oracle release prior to Oracle9i Release 2, and if you are
attempting to apply redo logs created with the parallel redo format, then you must
do the following steps:
1. Upgrade the database to Oracle9i Release 2.
2. Perform media recovery.
3. Shut down the database consistently and back up the database.
4. Downgrade the database to the original release.
See Also: Oracle9i Database Performance Tuning Guide and Reference to learn about the
parallel redo feature
Memory corruption or
transient problems
Shut down the database and restart recovery. Sometimes this tactic fixes the problem.
Oracle should leave the database in a consistent state if the second attempt also fails.
Corrupt data blocks Restore and recover the datafile again with user-managed methods, or restore and
recover individual data blocks with the RMAN BLOCKRECOVER command. This
tactic may fix the problem.
Note that a data block is corrupted if the checksum verification on the data block
fails. If DB_BLOCK_CHECKING is not enabled, a corrupted data block problem may
appear as a redo problem. If you must proceed with recovery, then you may want to
corrupt the block now and continue recovery, and use RMAN to perform block
media recovery later.
See Also: Oracle9i Recovery Manager User’s Guide to learn how to
perform block media recovery with the BLOCKRECOVER command
Table 5–2 Media Recovery Solutions (Cont.)
If you suspect . . . Then . . .
Deciding Whether to Allow Recovery to Corrupt Blocks: Phase 3
Troubleshooting User-Managed Media Recovery 5-7
Deciding Whether to Allow Recovery to Corrupt Blocks: Phase 3
When media recovery encounters a problem, the alert_SID.log may indicate
that recovery can continue if it is allowed to corrupt the data block causing the
problem. The alert_SID.log always contains information about the block: its
block type, block address, the tablespace it belongs to, and so forth. For blocks
containing user data, the log may also report the data object number.
In this case, Oracle can proceed with recovery if it is allowed to mark the problem
block as corrupt. Nevertheless, this response is not always advisable. For example,
if the block is an important block in the SYSTEM tablespace, marking the block as
corrupt can eventually prevent you from opening the recovered database. Another
consideration is whether the recovery problem is isolated. If this problem is
followed immediately by many other problems in the redo stream, then you may
want to open the database with the RESETLOGS option.
For a block containing user data, you can usually query the database to find out
which object or table owns this block. If the database is not open, then you should
be able to open the database read-only, even if you are recovering a whole database
backup. The following example cancels recovery and opens read-only:
CANCEL
ALTER DATABASE OPEN READ ONLY;
Assume that the data object number reported in the alert_SID.log is 8031. You
can determine the owner, object name, and object type by issuing this query:
SELECT OWNER, OBJECT_NAME, SUBOBJECT_NAME, OBJECT_TYPE
FROM DBA_OBJECTS
WHERE DATA_OBJECT_ID = 8031;
To determine whether a recovery problem is isolated, you can run a diagnostic trial
recovery, which scans the redo stream for problems but does not actually make any
changes to the recovered database. If a trial recovery discovers any recovery
problems, it reports them in the alert_SID.log. You can use the RECOVER ...
TEST statement to invoke trial recovery.
After you have done these investigations, you can follow the guidelines in Table 5–3
to decide whether to allow recovery to corrupt blocks.
See Also: "Performing Trial Recovery" on page 5-9
Allowing Recovery to Corrupt Blocks: Phase 4
5-8 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Allowing Recovery to Corrupt Blocks: Phase 4
If you decide to allow recovery to proceed in spite of block corruptions, then run
the RECOVER command with the ALLOW n CORRUPTION clause, where n is the
number of allowable corrupt blocks.
To allow recovery to corrupt blocks:
1. Ensure that all normal recovery preconditions are met. For example, if the
database is open, then take tablespaces offline before attempting recovery.
Table 5–3 Guidelines for Allowing Recovery to Permit Corruption
If the problem is . . . and the block is . . . Then . . .
not isolated n/a You should probably open the database with the RESETLOGS
option. This response is important for stuck recovery
problems, because stuck recovery can be caused by the
operating system or a storage system losing writes. If an
operating system or storage system suddenly fails, it can cause
stuck recovery problems on several blocks.
isolated in the SYSTEM
tablespace
Do not corrupt the block, because it may eventually prevent
you from opening the database. However, sometimes data in
the SYSTEM tablespace is unimportant. If you must corrupt a
SYSTEM block and recover all changes, contact Oracle Support.
isolated index data Consider corrupting index blocks because the index can be
rebuilt later after the database has been recovered.
isolated user data Decide based on the importance of the data. If you continue
with datafile recovery and corrupt a block, you lose data in the
block. However, you can use RMAN to perform block media
recovery later after datafile recovery completes. If you open
RESETLOGS, then the database is consistent but loses any
changes made after the point where recovery was stopped.
isolated rollback or undo data Consider corrupting the rollback or undo block because it
does not harm the database if the transactions that generated
the undo are never rolled back. However, if those transactions
are rolled back, then corrupting the undo block can cause
problems. If you are unsure, then call Oracle Support.
See Also: "Performing Trial Recovery" on page 5-9 to learn how
to perform trial recovery, and "Allowing Recovery to Corrupt
Blocks: Phase 4" on page 5-8 if you decide to corrupt blocks
Performing Trial Recovery
Troubleshooting User-Managed Media Recovery 5-9
2. Run the RECOVER command, allowing a single corruption, repeating as
necessary for each corruption to be made. The following statements shows a
valid example:
RECOVER DATABASE ALLOW 1 CORRUPTION
Performing Trial Recovery
This section contains these topics:
n About Trial Recovery
n How Trial Recovery Works
n Executing the RECOVER ... TEST Statement
About Trial Recovery
When problems such as stuck recovery occur, you have a difficult choice. If the
block is relatively unimportant, and if the problem is isolated, then it is better to
corrupt the block. But if the problem is not isolated, then it may be better to open
the database with the RESETLOGS option.
Because of this situation, Oracle supports trial recovery. A trial recovery applies
redo in a way similar to normal media recovery, but it never writes its changes to
disk and it always rolls back its changes. Trial recovery occurs only in memory.
How Trial Recovery Works
By default, if a trial recovery encounters a stuck recovery or similar problem, then it
always marks the data block as corrupt in memory when this action can allow
recovery to proceed. Oracle writes errors generated during trial recovery to alert
files. Oracle clearly marks these errors as test run errors.
Like normal media recovery, trial recovery can prompt you for archived log
filenames and ask you to apply them. Trial recovery ends when:
n Oracle runs out of the maximum number of buffers in memory that trial
recovery is permitted to use
n An unrecoverable error is signaled, that is, an error that cannot be resolved by
corrupting a data block
See Also: "Allowing Recovery to Corrupt Blocks: Phase 4" on
page 5-8
Performing Trial Recovery
5-10 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
n You cancel or interrupt the recovery session
n The next redo record in the redo stream changes the control file
n All requested redo has been applied
When trial recovery ends, Oracles removes all effects of the test run from the
system—except the possible error messages in the alert files. If the instance fails
during trial recovery, then Oracle removes all effects of trial recovery from the
system because trial recovery never writes changes to disk.
Trial recovery lets you foresee what problems might occur if you were to continue
with normal recovery. For problems caused by ongoing memory corruption, trial
recovery and normal recovery can encounter different errors.
Executing the RECOVER ... TEST Statement
You can use the TEST option for any RECOVER command. For example, you can
start SQL*Plus and then issue any of the following commands:
RECOVER DATABASE TEST
RECOVER DATABASE USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE UNTIL CANCEL TEST
RECOVER TABLESPACE users TEST
RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL CANCEL TEST
By default, trial recovery always attempts to corrupt blocks in memory if this action
allows trial recovery to proceed. In other words, trial recovery by default can
corrupt an unlimited number of data blocks. You can specify the ALLOW n
CORRUPTION clause on the RECOVER ... TEST statement to limit the number of
data blocks trial recovery can corrupt in memory.
Note that a trial recovery command is usable in any scenario in which a normal
recovery command is usable. Nevertheless, you should only need to run trial
recovery when recovery runs into problems.
User-Managed Media Recovery Scenarios 6-1
6
User-Managed Media Recovery Scenarios
This chapter describes how to recover from common media failures, and includes
the following topics:
n Recovering After the Loss of Datafiles: Scenarios
n Recovering Through an Added Datafile: Scenario
n Recovering Transportable Tablespaces: Scenario
n Recovering After the Loss of Online Redo Log Files: Scenarios
n Recovering After the Loss of Archived Redo Log Files: Scenario
n Recovering from User Errors: Scenario
n Performing Media Recovery in a Distributed Environment: Scenario
Recovering After the Loss of Datafiles: Scenarios
6-2 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Recovering After the Loss of Datafiles: Scenarios
If a media failure affects datafiles, then the recovery procedure depends on:
n The archiving mode of the database: ARCHIVELOG or NOARCHIVELOG
n The type of media failure
n The files affected by the media failure
The following sections explain the appropriate recovery strategies based on the
database archiving mode:
n Losing Datafiles in NOARCHIVELOG Mode
n Losing Datafiles in ARCHIVELOG Mode
Losing Datafiles in NOARCHIVELOG Mode
If either a permanent or temporary media failure affects any datafiles of a database
operating in NOARCHIVELOG mode, then Oracle automatically shuts down the
database. Depending on the type of failure, use one of the following recovery
methods:
Losing Datafiles in ARCHIVELOG Mode
If either a permanent or temporary media failure affects the datafiles of a database
operating in ARCHIVELOG mode, then the following scenarios can occur.
If the media failure is . . . Then . . .
Temporary Correct the hardware problem and restart the database.
Usually, crash recovery is possible, and all committed
transactions can be recovered using the online redo log.
Permanent Follow the procedure "Performing Complete User-Managed
Media Recovery" on page 4-9.
Recovering Through an Added Datafile: Scenario
User-Managed Media Recovery Scenarios 6-3
Recovering Through an Added Datafile: Scenario
If database recovery with a backup control file rolls forward through a CREATE
TABLESPACE or an ALTER TABLESPACE ADD DATAFILE operation, then Oracle
stops recovery when applying the redo record for the added files and lets you
confirm the filenames.
For example, suppose you make a whole database backup, and then later create a
new tablespace containing two datafiles: /oracle/dbs/db2.f and
/oracle/dbs/db3.f. If you later restore a backup control file and perform media
recovery through the CREATE TABLESPACE operation, then Oracle may signal the
following error when applying the CREATE TABLESPACE redo data:
ORA-00283: recovery session canceled due to errors
ORA-01244: unnamed datafile(s) added to controlfile by media recovery
ORA-01110: data file 3: '/oracle/dbs/db2.f'
ORA-01110: data file 2: '/oracle/dbs/db3.f'
To recover through an ADD DATAFILE operation:
1. View the files added by selecting from V$DATAFILE. For example:
SELECT FILE#,NAME
FROM V$DATAFILE;
FILE# NAME
--------------- ----------------------
1 /oracle/dbs/db1.f
2 /oracle/dbs/UNNAMED00002
3 /oracle/dbs/UNNAMED00003
Damaged Datafiles Database Status Solution
Datafiles in the SYSTEM
tablespace or datafiles with
active rollback or undo
segments.
Oracle shuts down. If the hardware problem is temporary, then fix it
and restart the database. Usually, crash recovery
recovers lost transactions. If the hardware
problem is permanent, then refer to "Performing
Closed Database Recovery" on page 4-9.
Datafiles not in the SYSTEM
tablespace or datafiles that
do not contain active
rollback or undo segments.
Oracle takes affected
datafiles offline, but the
database stays open.
If the unaffected portions of the database must
remain available, then do not shut down the
database. Take tablespaces containing problem
datafiles offline using the temporary option, then
follow the procedure in "Performing Datafile
Recovery in an Open Database" on page 4-12.
Recovering Transportable Tablespaces: Scenario
6-4 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
2. If multiple unnamed files exist, then determine which unnamed file
corresponds to which datafile by using one of these methods:
n Open the alert_SID.log, which contains messages about the original file
location for each unnamed file.
n Derive the original file location of each unnamed file from the error
message and V$DATAFILE: each unnamed file corresponds to the file in the
error message with the same file number.
3. Issue the ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE statement to rename the datafiles.
For example, enter:
ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE '/db/UNNAMED00002' TO '/oracle/dbs/db3.f';
ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE '/db/UNNAMED00003' TO '/oracle/dbs/db2.f';
4. Continue recovery by issuing the previous recovery statement. For example:
RECOVER AUTOMATIC DATABASE USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE UNTIL CANCEL
Recovering Transportable Tablespaces: Scenario
The transportable tablespace feature of Oracle allows a user to transport a set of
tablespaces from one database to another. Transporting a tablespace into a database
is like creating a tablespace with preloaded data. Using this feature is often an
advantage because:
n It is faster than using the Export or SQL*Loader utilities because it involves
only copying datafiles and integrating metadata
n You can use it to move index data, hence avoiding the necessity of rebuilding
indexes
Like normal tablespaces, transportable tablespaces are recoverable. While you can
recover normal tablespaces without a backup, you must have a version of the
transported datafiles in order to recover a transported tablespace.
To recover a transportable tablespace:
1. If the database is open, then take the transported tablespace offline. For
example, if you want to recover the users tablespace, then issue:
ALTER TABLESPACE users OFFLINE IMMEDIATE;
Recovering After the Loss of Online Redo Log Files: Scenarios
User-Managed Media Recovery Scenarios 6-5
2. Restore a backup of the transported datafiles using an operating system utility.
The backup can be the initial version of the transported datafiles or any backup
taken after the tablespace is transported. For example, enter:
% cp /backup/users.dbf /oracle/dbs/users.dbf
3. Recover the tablespace as normal. For example, enter:
RECOVER TABLESPACE users
Oracle may signal ORA-01244 when recovering through a transportable tablespace
operation just as when recovering through a CREATE TABLESPACE operation. In
this case, rename the unnamed files to the correct locations using the procedure in
"Recovering Through an Added Datafile: Scenario" on page 6-3.
Recovering After the Loss of Online Redo Log Files: Scenarios
If a media failure has affected the online redo logs of a database, then the
appropriate recovery procedure depends on the following:
n The configuration of the online redo log: mirrored or non-mirrored
n The type of media failure: temporary or permanent
n The types of online redo log files affected by the media failure: current, active,
unarchived, or inactive
Table 6–1 displays V$LOG status information that can be crucial in a recovery
situation involving online redo logs.
See Also: Oracle9i Database Administrator’s Guide for detailed
information about using the transportable tablespace feature
Table 6–1 STATUS Column of V$LOG
Status Description
UNUSED The online redo log has never been written to.
CURRENT The log is active, that is, needed for instance recovery, and it is
the log to which Oracle is currently writing. The redo log can be
open or closed.
ACTIVE The log is active, that is, needed for instance recovery, but is not
the log to which Oracle is currently writing.It may be in use for
block recovery, and may or may not be archived.
Recovering After the Loss of Online Redo Log Files: Scenarios
6-6 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
The following sections describe the appropriate recovery strategies for these
situations:
n Recovering After Losing a Member of a Multiplexed Online Redo Log Group
n Recovering After the Loss of All Members of an Online Redo Log Group
Recovering After Losing a Member of a Multiplexed Online Redo Log Group
If the online redo log of a database is multiplexed, and if at least one member of
each online redo log group is not affected by the media failure, then Oracle allows
the database to continue functioning as normal. Oracle writes error messages to the
LGWR trace file and the alert_SID.log of the database.
Solve the problem by taking one of the following actions:
n If the hardware problem is temporary, then correct it. LGWR accesses the
previously unavailable online redo log files as if the problem never existed.
n If the hardware problem is permanent, then drop the damaged member and
add a new member by using the following procedure.
To replace a damaged member of a redo log group:
1. Locate the filename of the damaged member in V$LOGFILE. The status is
INVALID if the file is inaccessible:
SELECT GROUP#, STATUS, MEMBER
CLEARING The log is being re-created as an empty log after an ALTER
DATABASE CLEAR LOGFILE statement. After the log is cleared,
then the status changes to UNUSED.
CLEARING_CURRENT The current log is being cleared of a closed thread. The log can
stay in this status if there is some failure in the switch such as an
I/O error writing the new log header.
INACTIVE The log is no longer needed for instance recovery. It may be in
use for media recovery, and may or may not be archived.
Note: The newly added member provides no redundancy until
the log group is reused.
Table 6–1 STATUS Column of V$LOG (Cont.)
Status Description
Recovering After the Loss of Online Redo Log Files: Scenarios
User-Managed Media Recovery Scenarios 6-7
FROM V$LOGFILE
WHERE STATUS=’INVALID’;
GROUP# STATUS MEMBER
------- ----------- ---------------------
0002 INVALID /oracle/dbs/log2b.f
2. Drop the damaged member. For example, to drop member log2b.f from
group 2, issue:
ALTER DATABASE DROP LOGFILE MEMBER '/oracle/dbs/log2b.f';
3. Add a new member to the group. For example, to add log2c.f to group 2,
issue:
ALTER DATABASE ADD LOGFILE MEMBER '/oracle/dbs/log2c.f' TO GROUP 2;
If the file you want to add already exists, then it must be the same size as the
other group members, and you must specify REUSE. For example:
ALTER DATABASE ADD LOGFILE MEMBER '/oracle/dbs/log2b.f' REUSE TO GROUP 2;
Recovering After the Loss of All Members of an Online Redo Log Group
If a media failure damages all members of an online redo log group, then different
scenarios can occur depending on the type of online redo log group affected by the
failure and the archiving mode of the database.
If the damaged log group is inactive, then it is not needed for crash recovery; if it is
active, then it is needed for crash recovery.
Your first task is to determine whether the damaged group is active or inactive.
If the group is . . . Then . . . And you should . . .
Inactive It is not needed for
crash recovery
Clear the archived or unarchived group.
Active It is needed for
crash recovery
Attempt to issue a checkpoint and clear the
log; if impossible, then you must restore a
backup and perform incomplete recovery
up to the most recent available log.
Current It is the log that
Oracle is currently
writing to
Attempt to clear the log; if impossible, then
you must restore a backup and perform
incomplete recovery up to the most recent
available log.
Recovering After the Loss of Online Redo Log Files: Scenarios
6-8 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
To determine whether the damaged groups are active:
1. Locate the filename of the lost redo log in V$LOGFILE and then look for the
group number corresponding to it. For example, enter:
SELECT GROUP#, STATUS, MEMBER FROM V$LOGFILE;
GROUP# STATUS MEMBER
------- ----------- ---------------------
0001 /oracle/dbs/log1a.f
0001 /oracle/dbs/log1b.f
0002 INVALID /oracle/dbs/log2a.f
0002 INVALID /oracle/dbs/log2b.f
0003 /oracle/dbs/log3a.f
0003 /oracle/dbs/log3b.f
2. Determine which groups are active. For example, enter:
SELECT GROUP#, MEMBERS, STATUS, ARCHIVED FROM V$LOG;
GROUP# MEMBERS STATUS ARCHIVED
------ ------- --------- -----------
0001 2 INACTIVE YES
0002 2 ACTIVE NO
0003 2 CURRENT NO
3. If the affected group is inactive, follow the procedure in "Losing an Inactive
Online Redo Log Group" on page 6-8. If the affected group is active (as in the
preceding example), then follow the procedure in "Losing an Active Online
Redo Log Group" on page 6-10.
Losing an Inactive Online Redo Log Group
If all members of an online redo log group with INACTIVE status are damaged,
then the procedure depends on whether you can fix the media problem that
damaged the inactive redo log group.
If the failure is . . . Then . . .
Temporary Fix the problem. LGWR can reuse the redo log group when
required.
Permanent The damaged inactive online redo log group eventually halts
normal database operation. Reinitialize the damaged group
manually by issuing the ALTER DATABASE CLEAR LOGFILE
statement as described in this section.
Recovering After the Loss of Online Redo Log Files: Scenarios
User-Managed Media Recovery Scenarios 6-9
You can clear an active redo log group when the database is open or closed. The
procedure depends on whether the damaged group has been archived.
To clear an inactive, online redo log group that has been archived:
1. If the database is shut down, then start a new instance and mount the database:
STARTUP MOUNT
2. Reinitialize the damaged log group. For example, to clear redo log group 2,
issue the following statement:
ALTER DATABASE CLEAR LOGFILE GROUP 2;
To clear an inactive, online redo log group that has not been archived:
Clearing an unarchived log allows it to be reused without archiving it. This action
makes backups unusable if they were started before the last change in the log,
unless the file was taken offline prior to the first change in the log. Hence, if you
need the cleared log file for recovery of a backup, then you cannot recover that
backup. Also, it prevents complete recovery from backups due to the missing log.
1. If the database is shut down, then start a new instance and mount the database:
STARTUP MOUNT
2. Clear the log using the UNARCHIVED keyword. For example, to clear log group
2, issue:
ALTER DATABASE CLEAR LOGFILE UNARCHIVED GROUP 2;
If there is an offline datafile that requires the cleared unarchived log to bring it
online, then the keywords UNRECOVERABLE DATAFILE are required. The
datafile and its entire tablespace have to be dropped because the redo necessary
to bring it online is being cleared, and there is no copy of it. For example, enter:
ALTER DATABASE CLEAR LOGFILE UNARCHIVED GROUP 2 UNRECOVERABLE DATAFILE;
3. Immediately back up the database with an operating system utility as described
in "Making User-Managed Backups of the Whole Database" on page 2-4. Now
you can use this backup for complete recovery without relying on the cleared
log group. For example, enter:
% cp /disk1/oracle/dbs/*.f /disk2/backup
Recovering After the Loss of Online Redo Log Files: Scenarios
6-10 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
4. Back up the database's control file using the ALTER DATABASE statement as
described in "Backing Up the Control File to a Binary File" on page 2-19. For
example, enter:
ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO '/oracle/dbs/cf_backup.f';
Failure of CLEAR LOGFILE Operation The ALTER DATABASE CLEAR LOGFILE
statement can fail with an I/O error due to media failure when it is not possible to:
n Relocate the redo log file onto alternative media by re-creating it under the
currently configured redo log filename
n Reuse the currently configured log filename to re-create the redo log file
because the name itself is invalid or unusable (for example, due to media
failure)
In these cases, the ALTER DATABASE CLEAR LOGFILE statement (before receiving
the I/O error) would have successfully informed the control file that the log was
being cleared and did not require archiving. The I/O error occurred at the step in
which the CLEAR LOGFILE statement attempts to create the new redo log file and
write zeros to it. This fact is reflected in V$LOG.CLEARING_CURRENT.
Losing an Active Online Redo Log Group
If the database is still running and the lost active log is not the current log, then
issue the ALTER SYSTEM CHECKPOINT statement. If successful, then the active log
is rendered inactive, and you can follow the procedure in "Losing an Inactive
Online Redo Log Group" on page 6-8. If unsuccessful, or if your database has
halted, then perform one of procedures in this section, depending on the archiving
mode.
Note that the current log is the one LGWR is currently writing to. If a LGWR I/O
fails, then LGWR terminates and the instance crashes. In this case, you must restore
a backup, perform incomplete recovery, and open the database with the
RESETLOGS option.
To recover from loss of an active online redo log group in NOARCHIVELOG
mode:
1. If the media failure is temporary, then correct the problem so that Oracle can
reuse the group when required.
Recovering After the Loss of Online Redo Log Files: Scenarios
User-Managed Media Recovery Scenarios 6-11
2. Restore the database from a consistent, whole database backup (datafiles and
control files) as described in "Restoring Datafiles" on page 3-6. For example,
enter:
% cp /disk2/backup/*.f /disk1/oracle/dbs
3. Mount the database:
STARTUP MOUNT
4. Because online redo logs are not backed up, you cannot restore them with the
datafiles and control files. In order to allow Oracle to reset the online redo logs,
you must first mimic incomplete recovery:
RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL CANCEL
CANCEL
5. Open the database using the RESETLOGS option:
ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
6. Shut down the database consistently. For example, enter:
SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE
7. Make a whole database backup as described in "Making User-Managed
Backups of the Whole Database" on page 2-4. For example, enter:
% cp /disk1/oracle/dbs/*.f /disk2/backup
To recover from loss of an active online redo log group in ARCHIVELOG mode:
If the media failure is temporary, then correct the problem so that Oracle can reuse
the group when required. If the media failure is not temporary, then use the
following procedure.
1. Begin incomplete media recovery. Use the procedure given in "Performing
Incomplete User-Managed Media Recovery" on page 4-16, recovering up
through the log before the damaged log.
2. Ensure that the current name of the lost redo log can be used for a newly
created file. If not, then rename the members of the damaged online redo log
group to a new location. For example, enter:
ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE "/oracle/dbs/log_1.rdo" TO "/temp/log_1.rdo";
ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE "/oracle/dbs/log_2.rdo" TO "/temp/log_2.rdo";
Recovering After the Loss of Archived Redo Log Files: Scenario
6-12 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
3. Open the database using the RESETLOGS option:
ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
Loss of Multiple Redo Log Groups
If you have lost multiple groups of the online redo log, then use the recovery
method for the most difficult log to recover. The order of difficulty, from most
difficult to least difficult, follows:
1. The current online redo log
2. An active online redo log
3. An unarchived online redo log
4. An inactive online redo log
Recovering After the Loss of Archived Redo Log Files: Scenario
If the database is operating in ARCHIVELOG mode, and if the only copy of an
archived redo log file is damaged, then the damaged file does not affect the present
operation of the database. The following situations can arise, however, depending
on when the redo log was written and when you backed up the datafile.
Note: All updates executed from the endpoint of the incomplete
recovery to the present must be re-executed.
If you backed up . . . Then . . .
All datafiles after the filled online redo
log group (which is now archived) was
written
The archived version of the filled online redo log
group is not required for complete media
recovery operation.
A specific datafile before the filled
online redo log group was written
If the corresponding datafile is damaged by a
permanent media failure, use the most recent
backup of the damaged datafile and perform
incomplete recovery up to the damaged log.
Caution: If you know that an archived redo log group has been
damaged, immediately back up all datafiles so that you will have a
whole database backup that does not require the damaged archived
redo log.
Performing Media Recovery in a Distributed Environment: Scenario
User-Managed Media Recovery Scenarios 6-13
Recovering from User Errors: Scenario
An accidental operational or programmatic change to the database can cause loss or
corruption of data. Recovery may require a return to a state prior to the error.
To recover a table that has been accidentally dropped:
1. If possible, keep the database that experienced the user error online and
available for use. Back up all datafiles of the existing database in case an error is
made during the remaining steps of this procedure.
2. Restore a database backup to an alternative location, then perform incomplete
recovery of this backup using a restored backup control file, to the point just
before the table was dropped (as described in "Performing Incomplete
User-Managed Media Recovery" on page 4-16).
3. Export the lost data from the temporary, restored version of the database using
the Oracle utility Export. In this case, export the accidentally dropped table.
4. Use the Import utility to import the data back into the production database.
5. Delete the files of the temporary copy of the database to conserve space.
Performing Media Recovery in a Distributed Environment: Scenario
The manner in which you perform media recovery depends on whether your
database participates in a distributed database system. The Oracle distributed
database architecture is autonomous. Therefore, depending on the type of recovery
operation selected for a single, damaged database, you may have to coordinate
recovery operations globally among all databases in the distributed system.
Note: If you have granted powerful privileges (such as DROP ANY
TABLE) to only selected, appropriate users, you can minimize user
errors that require database recovery.
Note: System audit options are exported.
See Also: Oracle9i Database Utilities for more information about
the Import and Export utilities
Performing Media Recovery in a Distributed Environment: Scenario
6-14 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Table 6–2 summarizes different types of recovery operations and whether
coordination among nodes of a distributed database system is required.
Coordinating Time-Based and Change-Based Distributed Database Recovery
In special circumstances, one node in a distributed database may require recovery
to a past time. To preserve global data consistency, it is often necessary to recover all
other nodes in the system to the same point in time. This operation is called
coordinated, time-based, distributed database recovery. The following tasks
should be performed with the standard procedures of time-based and change-based
recovery described in this chapter.
1. Recover the database that requires the recovery operation using time-based
recovery, as described in "Performing Time-Based Incomplete Recovery" on
page 4-20. For example, if a database needs to be recovered because of a user
error (such as an accidental table drop), then recover this database first using
time-based recovery. Do not recover the other databases at this point.
2. After you have recovered the database and opened it with the RESETLOGS
option, search the alert_SID.log of the database for the RESETLOGS
message.
If the message is, "RESETLOGS after complete recovery through change xxx",
then you have applied all the changes in the database and performed complete
recovery. Do not recover any of the other databases in the distributed system, or
you will unnecessarily remove changes in them. Recovery is complete.
Table 6–2 Recovery Operations in a Distributed Database Environment
If you are . . . Then . . .
Restoring a whole backup for a database that was
never accessed from a remote node
Use non-coordinated, autonomous database recovery.
Restoring a whole backup for a database that was
accessed by a remote node for a database in
NOARCHIVELOG mode
Shut down all databases and restore them using the
same coordinated full backup.
Performing complete media recovery of one or
more databases in a distributed database
Use non-coordinated, autonomous database recovery.
Performing incomplete media recovery of a
database that was never accessed by a remote node
Use non-coordinated, autonomous database recovery.
Performing incomplete media recovery of a
database that was accessed by a remote node
Use coordinated, incomplete recovery to the same global
point in time for all databases in the distributed system.
Performing Media Recovery in a Distributed Environment: Scenario
User-Managed Media Recovery Scenarios 6-15
If the message is, "RESETLOGS after incomplete recovery UNTIL CHANGE
xxx", then you have successfully performed an incomplete recovery. Record the
change number from the message and proceed to the next step.
3. Recover all other databases in the distributed database system using
change-based recovery, specifying the change number (SCN) from Step 2.
Performing Media Recovery in a Distributed Environment: Scenario
6-16 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Performing User-Managed TSPITR 7-1
7
Performing User-Managed TSPITR
This chapter describes how to perform user-managed tablespace point-in-time
recovery (TSPITR) with the transportable tablespace feature.
This chapter includes the following topics:
n Introduction to User-Managed Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery
n Preparing for Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery: Basic Steps
n Restoring and Recovering the Auxiliary Database: Basic Steps
n Performing TSPITR with Transportable Tablespaces
n Performing Partial TSPITR of Partitioned Tables
n Performing TSPITR of Partitioned Tables When a Partition Has Been Dropped
n Performing TSPITR of Partitioned Tables When a Partition Has Split
Introduction to User-Managed Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery
7-2 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Introduction to User-Managed Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery
Tablespace point-in-time recovery (TSPITR) with the transportable tablespace
feature enables you to quickly recover one or more tablespaces (other than the
SYSTEM tablespace) to a time that is prior to the rest of the database.
User-managed TSPITR is most useful for recovering the following:
n An erroneous DROP TABLE or TRUNCATE TABLE operation
n An erroneous DROP TABLESPACE operation
n A table that is logically corrupted
n An incorrect batch job or other DML statement that has affected only a subset of
the database
n A logical schema to a point different from the rest of the physical database
when multiple schemas exist in separate tablespaces of one physical database
n A tablespace in a VLDB (very large database) when TSPITR is more efficient
than restoring the whole database from a backup and rolling it forward (refer to
"Preparing for Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery: Basic Steps" on page 7-4
before making any decisions)
TSPITR Terminology
Familiarize yourself with the following terms and abbreviations, which are used
throughout this chapter:
TSPITR
Tablespace point-in-time recovery
Primary Database
The database containing the tablespace or tablespaces that you want to recover to a
prior point in time.
Auxiliary Database
A copy of the current database that is restored from a backup. It includes restored
backups of the following:
n Datafiles belonging to the SYSTEM tablespace
n Datafiles in the set of tablespaces to be recovered
n Datafiles belonging to a system managed undo tablespace (when you run the
database in automatic undo management mode) or tablespace that contains
Introduction to User-Managed Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery
Performing User-Managed TSPITR 7-3
rollback segments (when you run the database in manual undo management
mode)
All backups must be from a point in time prior to the desired recovery time.
Recovery Set
All the tablespaces that require point-in-time recovery to be performed on them.
Recovery Set Self-Containment Check
All objects that are part of the recovery set must be self-contained: there can be no
dependencies on objects outside the recovery set. For example, if a table is part of
the recovery set and its indexes are in a separate tablespace, then the recovery set
must include the tablespace containing the index. Alternatively, the index can be
dropped. The recovery set tablespaces can be checked for self-containment with the
procedure DBMS_TTS.TRANSPORT_SET_CHECK.
Auxiliary Set
Any other items required for restoring the auxiliary database, including:
n Backup control file
n Datafiles from the SYSTEM tablespace
n Datafiles in an undo tablespace or datafiles containing rollback segments
Transportable Tablespace
A rapid method of transporting tablespaces across databases by unplugging them
from a source database and plugging them into a target database. The unplugging
and plugging is done with the Export and Import utilities. Note that there is no
actual export and import of the table data, but simply an export and import of
internal metadata. During the procedure, the datafiles of the transported
tablespaces are made part of the target database.
TSPITR Methods
In releases prior to Oracle9i, you had the following two methods for performing
user-managed TSPITR:
n Traditional user-managed TSPITR, which required you to create a special type
of database called a clone database
n User-managed TSPITR with the transportable tablespace feature
Preparing for Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery: Basic Steps
7-4 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Oracle9i TSPITR should be performed by using the transportable tablespace feature.
This procedure is relatively easy to use and is less error prone than the traditional
method, which is currently deprecated (although not yet unsupported).
Conceptually, TSPITR is performed by dropping the tablespaces to be recovered
from the primary database, restoring a copy of the database called an auxiliary
database and recovering it to the desired point in time, then transporting the
relevant tablespaces from the auxiliary database to the current version of the
primary database.
For ease of use, it is highly recommended that you place the auxiliary and primary
databases on different hosts. Nevertheless, you can also perform TSPITR when the
databases are located on the same host.
The basic procedure for performing user-managed TSPITR is as follows:
1. Take the tablespaces requiring TSPITR offline
2. Plan the setup of the auxiliary database.
3. Create the auxiliary database and recover it to the desired point in time.
4. Drop the tablespaces requiring TSPITR from the primary database.
5. Use the transportable tablespace feature to transport the set of tablespaces from
the auxiliary database to the primary database.
Preparing for Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery: Basic Steps
TSPITR requires careful planning. Before proceeding you should read this chapter
thoroughly.
This section contains the following topics:
n Step 1: Review TSPITR Requirements
n Step 2: Identify All of the Files in the Recovery and Auxiliary Set Tablespaces
n Step 3: Determine Whether Objects Will Be Lost
n Step 4: Choose a Method for Connecting to the Auxiliary Instance
n Step 5: Create an Oracle Password File for the Auxiliary Instance
n Step 6: Create the Initialization Parameter File for the Auxiliary Instance
See Also: Oracle9i Database Administrator’s Guide for a complete
account of how to use the transportable tablespace feature
Preparing for Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery: Basic Steps
Performing User-Managed TSPITR 7-5
Step 1: Review TSPITR Requirements
Satisfy the following requirements before performing TSPITR:
n Ensure that you have backups of all datafiles in the recovery and auxiliary set
tablespaces. The datafile backups must have been created before the desired
TSPITR time.
n Ensure that you have a control file backup that is usable on the auxiliary
database. To be usable, the control file must meet these requirements:
– The control file must have been backed up before the desired TSPITR time.
– The control file must have been backed up with the following SQL
statement, where cf_name refers to the fully specified filename:
ALTER DATABASE BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO 'cf_name';
n Ensure that all files constituting the recovery set tablespaces are in the recovery
set on the auxiliary database; otherwise, the export phase during tablespace
transport fails.
n Allocate enough disk space on the auxiliary host to accommodate the auxiliary
database.
n Provide enough real memory to start the auxiliary instance.
Step 2: Identify All of the Files in the Recovery and Auxiliary Set Tablespaces
Before you create the auxiliary database, make sure that you connect to the primary
database with administrator privileges and obtain all of the following information
about the primary database:
n The filenames of the datafiles in the recovery set tablespaces
n The filenames of the datafiles in the SYSTEM tablespace
n The filenames of the datafiles in an undo tablespace or datafiles containing
rollback segments
Caution: You should not perform TSPITR for the first time on a
production system, or when there is a time constraint.
See Also: "Step 6: Create the Initialization Parameter File for the
Auxiliary Instance" on page 7-7
Preparing for Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery: Basic Steps
7-6 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
n The filenames of the control files
The following useful query displays the filenames of all datafiles, control files, and
online redo logs in the database:
SELECT NAME FROM V$DATAFILE
UNION ALL
SELECT MEMBER FROM V$LOGFILE
UNION ALL
SELECT NAME FROM V$CONTROLFILE;
To determine the filenames of the datafiles in the SYSTEM and recovery set
tablespaces, execute the following query and replace RECO_TBS_1, RECO_TBS_2,
and so forth with the names of the recovery set tablespaces:
SELECT t.NAME AS "reco_tbs", d.NAME AS "dbf_name"
FROM V$DATAFILE d, V$TABLESPACE t
WHERE t.TS# = d.TS#
AND t.NAME IN ('SYSTEM', ’RECO_TBS_1’, ’RECO_TBS_2’);
If you run the database in manual undo management mode, then the following
query displays the names of the tablespaces containing rollback segments as well as
the names of the datafiles in the tablespaces:
SELECT r.TABLESPACE_NAME AS "rbs_tbs", d.FILE_NAME AS "dbf_name"
FROM DBA_ROLLBACK_SEGS r, DBA_DATA_FILES d
WHERE r.TABLESPACE_NAME=d.TABLESPACE_NAME;
If you run the database in automatic undo management mode, then the following
query displays the names of the undo tablespaces as well as the names of the
datafiles in the tablespaces:
SELECT u.TABLESPACE_NAME AS "undo_tbs", d.FILE_NAME AS "dbf_name"
FROM DBA_UNDO_EXTENTS u, DBA_DATA_FILES d
WHERE u.TABLESPACE_NAME=d.TABLESPACE_NAME;
Step 3: Determine Whether Objects Will Be Lost
When TSPITR is performed on a tablespace, any objects created after the recovery
time are lost. To determine which objects will be lost, query the TS_PITR_
OBJECTS_TO_BE_DROPPED view on the primary database. The contents of the
view are described in Table 7–1.
Table 7–1 TS_PITR_OBJECTS_TO_BE_DROPPED View
Column Name Meaning
OWNER Owner of the object to be dropped.
Preparing for Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery: Basic Steps
Performing User-Managed TSPITR 7-7
When querying this view, supply all the elements of the date field, otherwise the
default setting is used. Also, use the TO_CHAR and TO_DATE functions. For
example, with a recovery set consisting of sales_1 and sales_2, and a recovery
point in time of '2000-06-02:07:03:11', execute the following SQL script:
SELECT OWNER, NAME, TABLESPACE_NAME, TO_CHAR(CREATION_TIME, 'YYYY-MM-DD:HH24:MI:SS')
FROM SYS.TS_PITR_OBJECTS_TO_BE_DROPPED
WHERE TABLESPACE_NAME IN ('SALES_1','SALES_2')
AND CREATION_TIME > TO_DATE('00-JUN-02:07:03:11','YY-MON-DD:HH24:MI:SS')
ORDER BY TABLESPACE_NAME, CREATION_TIME;
Step 4: Choose a Method for Connecting to the Auxiliary Instance
You must be able to connect to the auxiliary instance. You can either use Oracle Net
or operating system authentication. To learn how to configure networking files,
refer to Oracle9i Net Services Administrator’s Guide.
Step 5: Create an Oracle Password File for the Auxiliary Instance
For information about creating and maintaining Oracle password files, refer to the
Oracle9i Database Administrator’s Guide. If you do not use a password file, then you
can skip this step.
Step 6: Create the Initialization Parameter File for the Auxiliary Instance
Create a new initialization parameter file rather than copying and then editing the
production database initialization parameter file. Save memory by using low
settings for parameters such as the following:
n DB_CACHE_SIZE
n SHARED_POOL_SIZE
NAME The name of the object that will be lost as a result of TSPITR
CREATION_TIME Creation time stamp for the object.
TABLESPACE_NAME Name of the tablespace containing the object.
See Also: Oracle9i Database Reference for more information about
the TS_PITR_OBJECTS_TO_BE_DROPPED view
Table 7–1 TS_PITR_OBJECTS_TO_BE_DROPPED View (Cont.)
Column Name Meaning
Preparing for Tablespace Point-in-Time Recovery: Basic Steps
7-8 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
n LARGE_POOL_SIZE
Note that reducing the preceding parameter settings can prevent the auxiliary
database from starting when other dependent parameters are set too high—for
example, the initialization parameter ENQUEUE_RESOURCES, which allocates
memory from within the shared pool.
The auxiliary database can be either on the same host as the primary database or on
a different host. Because the auxiliary database filenames are identical to the
primary database filenames in the auxiliary control file, you must rename them in
this control file so that they point to the restored locations. If the auxiliary database
is on the same machine as the primary database, or if the auxiliary database is on a
different machine that uses different path names, then you must rename the control
files, datafiles, and online redo logs. If the auxiliary database is on a different
machine with the same path names, then you can rename just the online redo logs.
Set the parameters shown in Table 7–2 in the auxiliary initialization parameter file.
Caution: If the auxiliary and primary database are on the same
machine, then failing to rename the online redo log files may cause
primary database corruption.
Table 7–2 Auxiliary Initialization Parameters
Parameter Purpose
DB_NAME Names the auxiliary database. Leave the name of the
auxiliary database the same as the primary database.
CONTROL_FILES Identifies auxiliary control files. Set to the filename of the
auxiliary control file. Make sure the control file name is
different from the primary database control file name.
LOCK_NAME_SPACE Allows the auxiliary database to start even though it has
the same name as the primary database. Set to any unique
value, for example, = AUX. This parameter is only needed if
the auxiliary and primary database are on the same host.
DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT Uses patterns to convert filenames for the datafiles of the
auxiliary database. This parameter is only necessary if you
are either restoring the auxiliary database on the same host
as the primary host, or on a different host that uses
different path names from the primary host.
LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT Uses patterns to convert filenames for the online redo logs
of the auxiliary database. This parameter is mandatory.
Restoring and Recovering the Auxiliary Database: Basic Steps
Performing User-Managed TSPITR 7-9
Set other parameters as needed, including the parameters that allow you to connect
as SYSDBA through Oracle Net.
For example, the auxiliary parameter file for a database on the same host as the
primary could look like the following:
DB_NAME = prod1
CONTROL_FILES = /oracle/aux/cf1.f
LOCK_NAME_SPACE = aux
DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT=("/oracle/dbs/","/oracle/aux/")
LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT=("/oracle/dbs/","/oracle/aux/")
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1 = ’LOCATION=/oracle/work/arc_dest/arc’
LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT = r_%t_%s.arc
The auxiliary parameter file for a database on a different host with the same path
names as the primary could look like the following:
DB_NAME = prod1
CONTROL_FILES = /oracle/aux/cf1.f
LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT=("/oracle/dbs/","/oracle/aux/")
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1 = ’LOCATION=/oracle/work/arc_dest/arc’
LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT = r_%t_%s.arc
Restoring and Recovering the Auxiliary Database: Basic Steps
The procedure for restore and recovery of the auxiliary database differs depending
on whether the auxiliary database is on the same host as the primary database. The
examples in this section assume:
n You are performing TSPITR on production database called prod1 located on
host prim_host.
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_1 Specifies the default directory containing the archived redo
logs required for recovery.This parameter specifies the
location on the auxiliary host in which the archived logs
will be located.
LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT Specifies the format of the archived logs. You should use
the same format setting used in the primary initialization
parameter file.
Table 7–2 Auxiliary Initialization Parameters (Cont.)
Parameter Purpose
Restoring and Recovering the Auxiliary Database: Basic Steps
7-10 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
n The recovery set tablespaces are sales_1 and sales_2. Tablespace sales_1
contains datafile /oracle/dbs/sales_1.f and tablespace sales_2 contains
datafile /fs2/sales_2.f.
n The auxiliary set contains the SYSTEM tablespace datafile
/oracle/dbs/system.f, the undo tablespace datafile
/oracle/dbs/undo.f, and the control file /oracle/dbs/cf1.f.
n The online redo logs are named /oracle/dbs/log1.f and
/oracle/dbs/log2.f.
n All the primary database files are contained in /oracle/dbs
The different cases are described in the following sections:
n Restoring and Recovering the Auxiliary Database on the Same Host
n Restoring the Auxiliary Database on a Different Host with the Same Path
Names
n Restoring the Auxiliary Database on a Different Host with Different Path
Names
Restoring and Recovering the Auxiliary Database on the Same Host
The following examples assume the case in which you restore the auxiliary
database to the same host as the primary database. In this scenario, all of the
primary database files are contained in /oracle/dbs, and you want to restore the
auxiliary database to /oracle/dbs/aux. So, you set DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT
and LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT to convert the filenames from /oracle/dbs to
/oracle/dbs/aux.
Perform the following tasks to restore and recover the auxiliary database:
1. Restore the auxiliary set and the recovery set to a location different from that of
the primary database. For example, assume that the auxiliary set consists of the
following files:
/oracle/dbs/cf1.f # control file
/oracle/dbs/undo.f # datafile in undo tablespace
/oracle/dbs/system.f # datafile in SYSTEM tablespace
And the recovery set consists of the following datafiles:
/oracle/dbs/sales_1.f # datafile in sales_1 tablespace
/oracle/dbs/sales_2.f # datafile in sales_2 tablespace
Restoring and Recovering the Auxiliary Database: Basic Steps
Performing User-Managed TSPITR 7-11
You can restore backups of the auxiliary set files and recovery set files to a new
location as follows:
cp /backup/cf1.f /aux/cf1.f
cp /backup/undo.f /aux/undo.f
cp /backup/system.f /aux/system.f
cp /backup/sales_1.f /aux/sales_1.f
cp /backup/sales_2.f /aux/sales_2.f
2. Start the auxiliary database without mounting it, specifying the initialization
parameter file if necessary. For example, enter:
STARTUP NOMOUNT PFILE=/aux/initAUX.ora
3. Mount the auxiliary database, specifying the CLONE keyword:
ALTER DATABASE MOUNT CLONE DATABASE;
The CLONE keyword causes Oracle to take all datafiles offline automatically.
4. Manually rename all auxiliary database files to reflect their new locations only if
these files are not renamed by DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT and LOG_FILE_
NAME_CONVERT. In our scenario, all datafiles and online redo logs are renamed
by initialization parameters, so no manual renaming is necessary.
5. Run the following SQL script to ensure that all datafiles are named correctly:
SELECT NAME FROM V$DATAFILE
UNION ALL
SELECT MEMBER FROM V$LOGFILE
UNION ALL
SELECT NAME FROM V$CONTROLFILE
/
If not, then rename the files manually as in the previous step.
6. Bring only the datafiles in the auxiliary and recovery set tablespaces online. For
example, bring the four datafiles in the recovery and auxiliary sets online:
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE /oracle/dbs/aux/system.f ONLINE;
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE /oracle/dbs/aux/sales_1.f ONLINE;
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE /oracle/dbs/aux/sales_2.f ONLINE;
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE /oracle/dbs/aux/undo.f ONLINE;
Note: The export phase of TSPITR will not work if all the files of
each recovery set tablespace are not online.
Restoring and Recovering the Auxiliary Database: Basic Steps
7-12 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
At this point, the auxiliary database is mounted and ready for media recovery.
7. Recover the auxiliary database to the specified point in time with the USING
BACKUP CONTROLFILE option. Use any form of incomplete recovery as
described in "Performing Incomplete User-Managed Media Recovery" on
page 4-16. The following example uses cancel-based incomplete recovery:
RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL CANCEL USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE
8. Open the auxiliary database with the RESETLOGS option using the following
statement:
ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
Restoring the Auxiliary Database on a Different Host with the Same Path Names
The following example assumes that you create the auxiliary database on a different
host called aux_host. The auxiliary host has the same path names as the primary
host. Hence, you do not need to rename the auxiliary database datafiles. So, you do
not need to set DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT, although you should set LOG_FILE_
NAME_CONVERT.
To restore and recover the auxiliary database:
1. Restore the auxiliary set and the recovery set to the auxiliary host. For example,
assume that the auxiliary set consists of the following files:
/oracle/dbs/cf1.f # control file
/oracle/dbs/undo.f # datafile in undo tablespace
/oracle/dbs/system.f # datafile in SYSTEM tablespace
And the recovery set consists of the following datafiles:
/oracle/dbs/sales_1.f # 1st datafile in sales_1 tablespace
/oracle/dbs/sales_2.f # 2nd datafile in sales_2 tablespace
These files will occupy the same locations in the auxiliary host.
2. Start the auxiliary database without mounting it, specifying the initialization
parameter file if necessary. For example, enter:
STARTUP NOMOUNT PFILE=/aux/initAUX.ora
3. Mount the auxiliary database, specifying the CLONE keyword:
ALTER DATABASE MOUNT CLONE DATABASE;
The CLONE keyword causes Oracle to take all datafiles offline automatically.
Restoring and Recovering the Auxiliary Database: Basic Steps
Performing User-Managed TSPITR 7-13
4. Rename all auxiliary database files to reflect their new locations only if these
files are not renamed by DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT and LOG_FILE_NAME_
CONVERT. In our scenario, the datafiles do not require renaming, and the logs
are converted with LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT. So, no manual renaming is
necessary.
5. Run the following script in SQL*Plus to ensure that all datafiles are named
correctly.
SELECT NAME FROM V$DATAFILE
UNION ALL
SELECT MEMBER FROM V$LOGFILE
UNION ALL
SELECT NAME FROM V$CONTROLFILE
/
If not, then rename them manually as in the previous step.
6. Bring all datafiles in the auxiliary and recovery set tablespaces online. For
example, bring the four datafiles in the recovery and auxiliary sets online:
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE /oracle/dbs/system.f ONLINE;
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE /oracle/dbs/sales_1.f ONLINE;
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE /oracle/dbs/sales_2.f ONLINE;
ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE /oracle/dbs/undo.f ONLINE;
At this point, the auxiliary database is mounted and ready for media recovery.
7. Recover the auxiliary database to the specified point in time with the USING
BACKUP CONTROLFILE option. Use any form of incomplete recovery as
described in "Performing Incomplete User-Managed Media Recovery" on
page 4-16. The following example uses cancel-based incomplete recovery:
RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL CANCEL USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE
8. Open the auxiliary database with the RESETLOGS option using the following
statement:
ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;
Note: The export phase of TSPITR will not work if all the files of
each recovery set tablespace are not online.
Performing TSPITR with Transportable Tablespaces
7-14 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Restoring the Auxiliary Database on a Different Host with Different Path Names
This case should be treated exactly like "Restoring and Recovering the Auxiliary
Database on the Same Host" on page 7-10. The same guidelines for renaming files
apply in both cases.
Performing TSPITR with Transportable Tablespaces
After you have completed the preparation stage, begin the actual TSPITR procedure
as described in Oracle9i Database Administrator’s Guide. The procedure occurs in the
following steps:
n Step 1: Unplugging the Tablespaces from the Auxiliary Database
n Step 2: Transporting the Tablespaces into the Primary Database
Step 1: Unplugging the Tablespaces from the Auxiliary Database
In this step, you recover the auxiliary database to the desired noncurrent time, then
unplug the desired tablespaces.
To unplug the auxiliary database tablespaces:
1. Make the tablespaces in the recovery set read-only by running the ALTER
TABLESPACE ... READ ONLY statement. For example, make sales_1 and
sales_2 read-only as follows:
ALTER TABLESPACE sales_1 READ ONLY;
ALTER TABLESPACE sales_2 READ ONLY;
2. Ensure that the recovery set is self-contained. For example:
EXECUTE SYS.DBMS_TTS.TRANSPORT_SET_CHECK(’sales_1,sales_2’,TRUE,TRUE);
3. Query the transportable tablespace violations table to manage any
dependencies. For example:
SELECT * FROM SYS.TRANSPORT_SET_VIOLATIONS;
This query should return no rows after all dependencies are managed. Refer to
Oracle9i Database Administrator’s Guide for more information about this table.
4. Generate the transportable set by running the Export utility as described in
Oracle9i Database Administrator’s Guide. Include all tablespaces in the recovery
set, as in the following example:
% exp SYS/pwd TRANSPORT_TABLESPACE=y TABLESPACES=(sales_1,sales_2) TTS_FULL_CHECK=y
Performing TSPITR with Transportable Tablespaces
Performing User-Managed TSPITR 7-15
This command generates an export file named expdat.dmp.
Step 2: Transporting the Tablespaces into the Primary Database
In this step, you transport the recovery set tablespaces into the primary database.
To plug the recovery set tablespaces into the primary database:
1. In the primary database (not the auxiliary database), drop the tablespaces in the
recovery set through the DROP TABLESPACE statement. For example:
DROP TABLESPACE sales_1 INCLUDING CONTENTS;
DROP TABLESPACE sales_2 INCLUDING CONTENTS;
2. Restore the recovery set datafiles from the auxiliary database to the recovery set
file locations in the primary database. For example:
% cp /net/aux_host/aux/sales_1.f /net/primary_host/oracle/dbs/sales_1.f
% cp /net/aux_host/aux/sales_2.f /net/primary_host/oracle/dbs/sales_2.f
3. Move the export file expdat.dmp to the primary host. For example, enter:
% cp /net/aux_host/aux/expdat.dmp /net/primary_host/oracle/dbs/expdat.dmp
4. Plug in the transportable set into the primary database by running Import as
described in Oracle9i Database Administrator’s Guide. For example:
% imp TRANSPORT_TABLESPACE=y FILE=expat.dmp
DATAFILES=(’/oracle/dbs/sales_1.f’,’/oracle/dbs/sales_2.f’)
5. Make the recovered tablespaces read write by issuing the ALTER TABLESPACE
READ WRITE statement. For example:
ALTER TABLESPACE sales_1 READ WRITE;
ALTER TABLESPACE sales_2 READ WRITE;
6. Back up the recovered tablespaces with an operating system utility as described
in "Making User-Managed Backups of Online Tablespaces and Datafiles" on
page 2-7.
Caution: You must back up the tablespace because otherwise you
might lose it. For example, a media failure occurs, but the archived
logs from the last backup of the database do not logically link to the
recovered tablespaces. If you attempt to recover any recovery set
tablespaces from a backup taken before TSPITR, then recovery fails.
Performing Partial TSPITR of Partitioned Tables
7-16 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Performing Partial TSPITR of Partitioned Tables
Partitioned tables can span multiple tablespaces. Follow this procedure only if the
recovery set does not fully contain all of the partitions.
This section describes how to perform partial TSPITR of partitioned tables that have
a range that has not changed or expanded, and includes the following steps:
n Step 1: Create a Table on the Primary Database for Each Partition Being
Recovered
n Step 2: Drop the Indexes on the Partition Being Recovered
n Step 3: Exchange Partitions with Standalone Tables
n Step 4: Drop the Recovery Set Tablespace
n Step 5: Create Tables at Auxiliary Database
n Step 6: Drop Indexes on Partitions Being Recovered
n Step 7: Exchange Partitions with Standalone Tables on the Auxiliary Database
n Step 8: Transport the Recovery Set Tablespaces
n Step 9: Exchange Partitions with Standalone Tables on the Primary Database
n Step 10: Back Up the Recovered Tablespaces in the Primary Database
Step 1: Create a Table on the Primary Database for Each Partition Being Recovered
This table should have the exact same column names and column datatypes as the
partitioned table you are recovering. Create the table using the following template:
CREATE TABLE new_table AS
SELECT * FROM partitioned_table
WHERE 1=2;
These tables are used to swap each recovery set partition (see "Step 3: Exchange
Partitions with Standalone Tables" on page 7-17).
Note: Often you have to recover the dropped partition along with
recovering a partition whose range has expanded. Refer to
"Performing TSPITR of Partitioned Tables When a Partition Has
Been Dropped" on page 7-18.
Performing Partial TSPITR of Partitioned Tables
Performing User-Managed TSPITR 7-17
Step 2: Drop the Indexes on the Partition Being Recovered
Drop the indexes on the partition you wish to recover, or create identical,
non-partitioned indexes that exist on the partition you wish to recover. If you drop
the indexes on the partition being recovered, then you need to drop them on the
auxiliary database (see "Step 6: Drop Indexes on Partitions Being Recovered" on
page 7-18). Rebuild the indexes after TSPITR is complete.
Step 3: Exchange Partitions with Standalone Tables
Exchange each partition in the recovery set with its associated standalone table
(created in Step 1) by issuing the following statement, replacing the variables with
the names of the appropriate objects:
ALTER TABLE table_name EXCHANGE PARTITION partition_name WITH TABLE table_name;
Step 4: Drop the Recovery Set Tablespace
On the primary database, drop each tablespace in the recovery set. For example,
enter the following, replacing tablespace_name with the name of the tablespace:
DROP TABLESPACE tablespace_name INCLUDING CONTENTS;
Step 5: Create Tables at Auxiliary Database
After recovering the auxiliary database and opening it with the RESETLOGS option,
create a table in the SYSTEM tablespace that has the same column names and
column data types as the partitioned table you are recovering. You must create the
table in the SYSTEM tablespace: otherwise, Oracle issues the ORA-01552 error.
Create a table for each partition you wish to recover. These tables are used later to
swap each recovery set partition.
Note: The table and the partition must belong to the same schema.
Note: The table and the partition must belong to the same schema.
Performing TSPITR of Partitioned Tables When a Partition Has Been Dropped
7-18 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Step 6: Drop Indexes on Partitions Being Recovered
Drop the indexes on the partition you wish to recover, or create identical,
non-partitioned indexes that exist on the partition you wish to recover (on the table
created in Step 1).
Step 7: Exchange Partitions with Standalone Tables on the Auxiliary Database
For each partition in the auxiliary database recovery set, exchange the partitions
with the standalone tables (created in Step 5) by executing the following SQL script,
replacing the variables with the appropriate object names:
ALTER TABLE partitioned_table_name
EXCHANGE PARTITION partition_name
WITH TABLE table_name;
Step 8: Transport the Recovery Set Tablespaces
Export the recovery set tablespaces from the auxiliary database and then import
them into the primary database as described in "Performing TSPITR with
Transportable Tablespaces" on page 7-14.
Step 9: Exchange Partitions with Standalone Tables on the Primary Database
For each recovered partition on the primary database, swap its associated
standalone table using the following statement, replacing the variables with the
appropriate object names:
ALTER TABLE table_name EXCHANGE PARTITION partition_name WITH TABLE table_name;
If the associated indexes have been dropped, then re-create them.
Step 10: Back Up the Recovered Tablespaces in the Primary Database
Back up the recovered tablespaces on the primary database. Failure to do so results
in loss of data in the event of media failure.
Performing TSPITR of Partitioned Tables When a Partition Has Been
Performing TSPITR of Partitioned Tables When a Partition Has Been Dropped
Performing User-Managed TSPITR 7-19
Dropped
This section describes how to perform TSPITR on partitioned tables when a
partition has been dropped, and includes the following steps:
n Step 1: Find the Low and High Range of the Partition that Was Dropped
n Step 2: Create a Temporary Table
n Step 3: Delete Records From the Partitioned Table
n Step 4: Drop the Recovery Set Tablespace
n Step 5: Create Tables at the Auxiliary Database
n Step 6: Drop Indexes on Partitions Being Recovered
n Step 7: Exchange Partitions with Standalone Tables
n Step 8: Transport the Recovery Set Tablespaces
n Step 9: Insert Standalone Tables into Partitioned Tables
n Step 10: Back Up the Recovered Tablespaces in the Primary Database
Step 1: Find the Low and High Range of the Partition that Was Dropped
When a partition is dropped, the range of the partition preceding it expands
downwards. Therefore, there may be records in the preceding partition that should
actually be in the dropped partition after it has been recovered. To ascertain this,
run the following SQL script at the primary database, replacing the variables with
the appropriate values:
SELECT * FROM partitioned_table
WHERE relevant_key
BETWEEN low_range_of_partition_that_was_dropped
AND high_range_of_partition_that_was_dropped;
Step 2: Create a Temporary Table
If any records are returned, then create a temporary table in which to store these
records so that if necessary they can be inserted into the recovered partition later.
Step 3: Delete Records From the Partitioned Table
Delete all the records stored in the temporary table from the partitioned table.
Performing TSPITR of Partitioned Tables When a Partition Has Been Dropped
7-20 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
Step 4: Drop the Recovery Set Tablespace
On the primary database, drop each tablespace in the recovery set. For example,
enter the following, replacing tablespace_name with the name of the tablespace:
DROP TABLESPACE tablespace_name INCLUDING CONTENTS;
Step 5: Create Tables at the Auxiliary Database
After opening the auxiliary database with the RESETLOGS option, create a table in
the SYSTEM tablespace that has the same column names and column data types as
the partitioned table you are recovering. You must create the table in the SYSTEM
tablespace: otherwise, Oracle issues the ORA-01552 error. Create a table for each
partition that you want to recover. These tables will be used later to swap each
recovery set partition.
Step 6: Drop Indexes on Partitions Being Recovered
Drop the indexes on the partition you wish to recover, or create identical,
nonpartitioned indexes that exist on the partition you wish to recover.
Step 7: Exchange Partitions with Standalone Tables
For each partition in the auxiliary recovery set, exchange the partitions into the
standalone tables created in Step 5 by issuing the following statement, replacing the
variables with the appropriate values:
ALTER TABLE partitioned_table_name
EXCHANGE PARTITION partition_name
WITH TABLE table_name;
Step 8: Transport the Recovery Set Tablespaces
Export the recovery set tablespaces from the auxiliary database and then import
them into the primary database as described in "Performing TSPITR with
Transportable Tablespaces" on page 7-14.
Step 9: Insert Standalone Tables into Partitioned Tables
At this point you must insert the standalone tables into the partitioned tables; you
can do this by first issuing the following statement, replacing the variables with the
appropriate values:
ALTER TABLE table_name SPLIT PARTITION partition_name AT (key_value) INTO
Performing TSPITR of Partitioned Tables When a Partition Has Split
Performing User-Managed TSPITR 7-21
(PARTITION partition_1_name TABLESPACE tablespace_name,
PARTITION partition_2_name TABLESPACE tablespace_name);
Note that at this point, partition 2 is empty because keys in that range have already
been deleted from the table.
Issue the following statement to swap the standalone table into the partition,
replacing the variables with the appropriate values:
ALTER TABLE EXCHANGE PARTITION partition_name WITH TABLE table_name;
Now insert the records saved in Step 2 into the recovered partition (if desired).
Step 10: Back Up the Recovered Tablespaces in the Primary Database
Back up the recovered tablespaces in the primary database. Failure to do so results
in loss of data in the event of media failure.
Performing TSPITR of Partitioned Tables When a Partition Has Split
This section describes how to recover partitioned tables when a partition has been
split, and includes the following sections:
n Step 1: Drop the Lower of the Two Partitions at the Primary Database
n Steps 2: Follow Same Procedure as for Partial TSPITR of Partitioned Tablespaces
Step 1: Drop the Lower of the Two Partitions at the Primary Database
For each partition you wish to recover whose range has been split, drop the lower
of the two partitions so that the higher expands downwards. In other words, the
higher partition has the same range as before the split. For example, if P1 was split
into partitions P1A and P1B, then P1B must be dropped, meaning that partition P1A
now has the same range as P1.
For each partition that you wish to recover whose range has split, create a table that
has exactly the same column names and column datatypes as the partitioned table
you are recovering. For example, execute the following, replacing the variables with
the appropriate values:
Note: If the partition that has been dropped is the last partition in
the table, then add it with the ALTER TABLE ADD PARTITION
statement.
Performing TSPITR of Partitioned Tables When a Partition Has Split
7-22 Oracle9i User-Managed Backup and Recovery Guide
CREATE TABLE new_table
AS SELECT * FROM partitioned_table
WHERE 1=2;
These tables will be used to exchange each recovery set partition in Step 3.
Steps 2: Follow Same Procedure as for Partial TSPITR of Partitioned Tablespaces
Follow the same procedure as for "Performing Partial TSPITR of Partitioned Tables"
on page 7-16, but skip the first step of this procedure. In other words, start with
"Step 2: Drop the Indexes on the Partition Being Recovered" and follow all
subsequent steps.
Index-1
Index
A
ABORT option
SHUTDOWN statement, 3-9, 4-16, 4-23, 4-24
active online redo log
loss of group, 6-10, 6-11
alert log, 6-14
checking after RESETLOGS, 4-30
ALLOW ... CORRUPTION clause
RECOVER command, 5-8
ALTER DATABASE statement
BACKUP CONTROLFILE clause, 2-19
TO TRACE option, 2-19
CLEAR LOGFILE clause, 6-10
END BACKUP clause, 2-12
NORESETLOGS option, 4-29
RECOVER clause, 3-16, 4-8
RESETLOGS option, 4-23, 4-25, 4-29
ALTER SYSTEM statement
RESUME clause, 2-18
SUSPEND clause, 2-18
ALTER TABLESPACE statement
BEGIN BACKUP clause, 2-8, 2-10
END BACKUP option, 2-10
archived redo logs
applying during media recovery, 4-2
automating application, 4-3, 4-4
changing default location, 4-7
corrupted, 5-2
deleting after recovery, 3-16
errors during recovery, 4-8
incompatible format, 5-3
location during recovery, 4-2
loss of, 6-12
restoring, 3-15
using for recovery
in default location, 4-5
in nondefault location, 4-7
ARCHIVELOG mode
datafile loss in, 6-2
AS SELECT clause
CREATE TABLE statement, 4-34
automatic undo management
tablespace backups, 2-15
AUTORECOVERY option
SET statement, 4-3
B
BACKUP CONTROLFILE clause
of ALTER DATABASE, 2-2
BACKUP CONTROLFILE TO TRACE clause
of ALTER DATABASE, 2-2, 2-19
backup mode
ending with ALTER DATABASE END
BACKUP, 2-12
for online user-managed backups, 2-9
instance failure, 2-11
backups
after RESETLOGS, 4-30
closed, 2-4
consistent, 2-4
control files, 2-19
binary, 2-19
trace files, 2-19
DBVERIFY utility, 2-27
determining datafile status, 2-3
inconsistent, 2-4
Index-2
keeping records, 3-3
listing files needed, 2-2
logical, 2-28
offline datafiles, 2-6
offline tablespaces, 2-6
read-only tablespaces, 2-14
restoring user-managed, 3-2
restoring whole database, 4-23
tablespace, 2-9
user-managed
overview, 1-3
restoring, 3-6
verifying, 2-27
whole database
preparing for, 2-4
BEGIN BACKUP clause
ALTER TABLESPACE statement, 2-8
C
cancel-based media recovery
procedures, 4-13, 4-20
change-based media recovery, 4-21
coordinated in distributed databases, 6-14
CLEAR LOGFILE clause
of ALTER DATABASE, 6-10
clone databases
preparing for TSPITR, 7-10, 7-12
preparing parameter files for, 7-7
cold failover cluster
definition, 2-12
commands, SQL
ALTER DATABASE, 3-16, 4-8
commands, SQL*Plus
RECOVER
UNTIL TIME option, 4-21
SET, 3-16, 4-3, 4-8
complete recovery
procedures, 4-9
consistent backups
whole database, 2-4
control files
backing up to trace file, 2-20
backups, 2-2, 2-19
binary, 2-19
trace files, 2-19
creating, 3-14
finding filenames, 2-2
loss of, 3-8
all copies, 3-13
multiplexed
loss of, 3-9
restoring
to default location, 3-9
to nondefault location, 3-9
time-based recovery, 4-16
CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter, 3-10
coordinated time-based recovery
distributed databases, 6-14
CREATE DATAFILE clause
of ALTER DATABASE, 3-7
CREATE TABLE statement
AS SELECT clause, 4-34
CREATE TABLESPACE statement, 6-3
D
data blocks
corrupted, 5-3
data dictionary views, 2-6, 2-8, 2-14
database incarnation, 4-26
database point-in-time recovery (DBPITR)
user-managed, 4-16
databases
listing for backups, 2-2
media recovery procedures, 4-1 to 4-22
media recovery scenarios, 6-1
recovery
after control file damage, 3-9
after OPEN RESETLOGS option, 4-31
suspending, 1-5, 2-16
datafiles
backing up
offline, 2-6
determining status, 2-3
listing
for backup, 2-2
losing, 6-2
in ARCHIVELOG mode, 6-2
in NOARCHIVELOG mode, 6-2
Index-3
recovery
without backup, 3-7
re-creating, 3-7
renaming
after recovery, 6-4
restoring, 3-6
to default location, 3-7
DB_FILE_NAME_CONVERT initialization
parameter, 7-8
DBA_DATA_FILES view, 2-6, 2-8, 2-14
DBVERIFY utility, 2-27
distributed databases
change-based recovery, 6-14
coordinated time-based recovery, 6-14
recovery, 6-13
E
Export utility, 2-28
backups, 2-28
read consistency, 2-28
exports
modes, 2-29
F
features, new, xxi to xxv
filenames
listing for backup, 2-2
G
groups
archived redo log, 6-6, 6-8
online redo log, 6-6, 6-8
H
hot backup mode
for online user-managed backups, 2-9
hot backups
failed, 2-11
ending with ALTER DATABASE END
BACKUP, 2-12
I
Import utility, 2-28
database recovery, 2-29
procedure for using, 2-29
inactive online redo log
loss of, 6-8
incomplete media recovery, 4-16
change-based, 4-21
in Oracle Real Application Clusters
configuration, 4-5
time-based, 4-20 to 4-21
with backup control file, 4-5
initialization parameters
CONTROL_FILES, 3-10
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n, 4-6
LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT, 4-6
RECOVERY_PARALLELISM, 4-26
instance failures
in backup mode, 2-11
interrupting media recovery, 4-33
L
log sequence numbers
requested during recovery, 4-2
LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_n initialization
parameter, 4-6, 7-9
LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT initialization
parameter, 4-6, 7-9
LOG_FILE_NAME_CONVERT initialization
parameter, 7-8
logical backups, 2-28
LOGSOURCE variable
SET statement, 3-16, 4-8
loss of
inactive log group, 6-8
M
media failures
archived redo log file loss, 6-12
complete recovery, 4-9 to 4-15, 4-15
control file loss, 3-8, 3-13
datafile loss, 6-2
NOARCHIVELOG mode, 4-22
Index-4
online redo log group loss, 6-7
online redo log loss, 6-6
online redo log member loss, 6-6
recovery, 4-9 to 4-22
distributed databases, 6-13
recovery procedures
examples, 6-2
media recovery, 4-1 to 4-33
ADD DATAFILE operation, 6-3
after control file damage, 3-9
after OPEN RESETLOGS operation, 4-31
applying archived redo logs, 4-2
cancel-based, 4-13, 4-16, 4-20
change-based, 4-16, 4-21
complete, 4-9 to 4-15, 4-15
closed database, 4-9
completion of, 4-12, 4-15
corruption
allowing to occur, 5-7
datafiles
without backup, 3-7
distributed databases, 6-13
coordinated time-based, 6-14
errors, 4-8, 5-3
incomplete, 4-16
interrupting, 4-33
lost files
lost archived redo log files, 6-12
lost control files, 3-8
lost datafiles, 6-2
lost mirrored control files, 3-9
NOARCHIVELOG mode, 4-22
offline tablespaces in open database, 4-12
online redo log files, 6-5
opening database after, 4-26, 4-29
parallel, 4-25
preconditions, 4-34
problems, 5-2, 5-3
fixing, 5-5
investigating, 5-4
restarting, 4-33
restoring
archived redo log files, 3-15
whole database backups, 4-22
restrictions, 4-34
resuming after interruption, 4-33
roll forward phase, 4-2
scenarios, 6-1
time-based, 4-16
transportable tablespaces, 6-4
trial, 5-9
explanation, 5-9
overview, 5-9
troubleshooting, 5-2
basic methodology, 5-3
types
distributed databases, 6-13
undamaged tablespaces online, 4-12
unsuccessfully applied redo logs, 4-8
using Import utility, 2-29
mirrored files
online redo log
loss of, 6-6
splitting, 1-5, 2-16
suspend/resume mode, 1-5, 2-16
modes
NOARCHIVELOG
recovery from failure, 4-22
MOUNT option
STARTUP statement, 4-18, 4-19
multiplexed files
control files
loss of, 3-9
N
new features, xxi to xxv
NOARCHIVELOG mode
datafile loss in, 6-2
disadvantages, 4-22
recovery, 4-22
O
online redo logs, 6-8
active group, 6-6, 6-8
applying during media recovery, 4-2
archived group, 6-6, 6-8
clearing
failure, 6-10
Index-5
clearing inactive logs
archived, 6-9
unarchived, 6-9
current group, 6-6, 6-8
determining active logs, 6-8
inactive group, 6-6, 6-8
listing log files for backup, 2-2
loss of
active group, 6-10, 6-11
all members, 6-7
group, 6-7
mirrored members, 6-6
recovery, 6-5
multiple group loss, 6-12
replacing damaged member, 6-6
status of members, 6-6, 6-8
ORA-01578 error message, 4-35
Oracle Managed Files, 1-3
P
parallel block recovery
definition, 4-25
parallel recovery, 4-26
partitioned tables
dropped partitions, 7-19
performing partial TSPITR, 7-16
split partitions, 7-21
point-in-time recovery, 4-16
tablespace, 7-1 to 7-15
R
raw devices
backing up to, 2-22
restoring to, 3-6
UNIX backups, 2-22
Windows backups, 2-25
read consistency
Export utility, 2-28
read-only tablespaces
backups, 2-14
RECOVER clause
of ALTER DATABASE, 3-16, 4-8
RECOVER command
PARALLEL option, 4-25
unrecoverable objects and standby
databases, 4-35
UNTIL TIME option, 4-21
USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE clause, 4-35
recovery
ADD DATAFILE operation, 6-3
automatically applying archived logs, 4-3
cancel-based, 4-13, 4-20
change-based, 4-21
complete, 4-9 to 4-15
closed database, 4-9
offline tablespaces, 4-12
control files, 3-8
corruption
intentionally allowing, 5-7
datafiles, 6-2
ARCHIVELOG mode, 6-2
NOARCHIVELOG mode, 6-2
determining files needing recovery, 3-5
dropped table, 6-13
errors, 5-3
Import utility, 2-29
interrupting, 4-33
media, 3-1, 4-1, 5-1, 6-1
multiple redo threads, 4-5
online redo logs, 6-5
losing member, 6-6
loss of group, 6-7
opening database after, 4-26
parallel, 4-25
parallel processes for, 4-26
preconditions, 4-34
problems, 5-2
fixing, 5-5
investigating, 5-4
responding to unsuccessful, 4-8
restrictions, 4-34
setting number of processes to use, 4-26
stuck, 5-2
time-based, 4-20 to 4-21
transportable tablespaces, 6-4
trial, 5-9
explanation, 5-9
overview, 5-9
Index-6
troubleshooting, 5-2
user errors, 6-13
user-managed, 1-6, 3-1, 4-1, 5-1, 6-1
using logs in a nondefault location, 4-7
using logs in default location, 4-5
using logs in nondefault location, 4-7
RECOVERY_PARALLELISM initialization
parameter, 4-26
redo logs
incompatible format, 5-3
listing files for backup, 2-2
naming, 4-6
parallel redo, 5-3
redo records
problems when applying, 5-2
RESETLOGS operation
backup after, 4-30
following up, 4-30
when necessary, 4-26
RESETLOGS option
of ALTER DATABASE, 4-23, 4-25, 4-26, 4-29
recovery of database after using, 4-31
restoring
archived redo logs, 3-15
control files, 3-8
to default location, 3-9
to nondefault location, 3-9
database
to default location, 4-23
to new location, 4-24
datafiles
to default location, 3-7
to raw devices, 3-6
user-managed backups, 1-6, 3-2
keeping records, 3-3
whole database backups, 4-23
RESUME clause
ALTER SYSTEM statement, 2-18
resuming recovery after interruption, 4-33
S
SCN (system change number)
use in distributed recovery, 6-15
SET statement
AUTORECOVERY option, 4-3
LOGSOURCE variable, 3-16, 4-8
SHUTDOWN statement
ABORT option, 3-9, 4-16, 4-23, 4-24
splitting mirrors
suspend/resume mode, 1-5, 2-16
STARTUP statement
MOUNT option, 4-18, 4-19
stuck recovery
definition, 5-2
SUSPEND clause
ALTER SYSTEM statement, 2-18
suspending a database, 1-5, 2-16
suspend/resume mode, 1-5, 2-16
system time
changing
effect on recovery, 4-16
T
tables
recovery of dropped, 6-13
tablespace point-in-time recovery
clone database, 7-2
introduction, 1-7, 7-2
methods, 7-3
performing, 7-1 to 7-15
planning for, 7-4
procedures for using transportable tablespace
feature, 7-14, 7-15
requirements, 7-5
terminology, 7-2
transportable tablespace method, 7-3
user-managed, 7-3
tablespaces
backups, 2-9
offline, 2-6
online, 2-9
read-only
backing up, 2-14
read/write
backing up, 2-8
recovering offline in open database, 4-12
time format
RECOVER DATABASE UNTIL TIME
Index-7
statement, 4-21
time-based recovery, 4-20 to 4-21
coordinated in distributed databases, 6-14
trace files
backing up control file, 2-20
control file backups to, 2-19
transportable tablespaces
recovery, 6-4
TSPITR and, 7-3
trial recovery
explanation, 5-9
overview, 5-9
U
undo tablespaces
backups, 2-15
unrecoverable objects
and RECOVER operation, 4-35
recovery
unrecoverable objects and, 4-34
UNTIL TIME option
RECOVER command, 4-21
user errors
recovery from, 6-13
user-managed backup and recovery
definition, 1-2
reasons, 1-2
user-managed backups, 2-4
backup mode, 2-11
basic methodology, 1-4
control files, 2-19
binary, 2-19
trace files, 2-19
definition, 1-3
determining datafile status, 2-3
hot backups, 2-12
listing files before, 2-2
offline datafiles, 2-6
offline tablespaces, 2-6
read-only tablespaces, 2-14
restoring, 3-6
restoring whole database, 4-23
tablespace, 2-9
verifying, 2-27
whole database, 2-4
user-managed recovery, 4-16
ADD DATAFILE operation, 6-3
applying archived redo logs, 4-2
complete, 4-9
incomplete, 4-16
interrupting, 4-33
opening database after, 4-26
scenarios, 6-1
user-managed restore and recovery
overview, 1-6
user-managed restore operations, 3-2
USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE option
RECOVER command, 4-19
V
V$ARCHIVED_LOG view
listing all archived logs, 2-22
V$BACKUP view, 2-3
V$DATAFILE view, 2-2
listing files for backups, 2-2
V$LOG_HISTORY view
listing all archived logs, 3-15
V$LOGFILE view, 6-6, 6-8
listing files for backups, 2-2
listing online redo logs, 2-2
V$RECOVER_FILE view, 3-5
V$RECOVERY_LOG view
listing logs needed for recovery, 3-15
V$TABLESPACE view, 2-2
W
warning
consistency and Export backups, 2-29
whole database backups
ARCHIVELOG mode, 2-4
inconsistent, 2-4
NOARCHIVELOG mode, 2-4
preparing for, 2-4
restoring from, 4-23
Index-8

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