Tuesday, October 9, 2007

Oracle 10g:Exploring Data Pump

Introduction:
Oracle 10g offers several new features, one of which is Data Pump technology for fast data movement between databases. Most Oracle shops still use their traditional export and import utility scripts rather this new technology. Data Pump technology is entirely different from the export/import utility, although they have a similar look and feel. Data Pump runs inside the database as a job, which means jobs are somewhat independent of the process that started the import or export. Another advantage is that other DBAs can login to the database and check the status of the job. The advantages of Data Pump, along with Oracle's plan to deprecate the traditional import/export utilities down the road, make Data Pump a worthwhile topic for discussion.

Oracle claims Data Pump offers a transfer of data and metadata at twice the speed of export and twenty to thirty times the speed of the import utility that DBAs have been using for years. Data Pump manages this speed with multiple parallel streams of data to achieve maximum throughput. Please note that Data Pump does not work with utilities older than the 10g release 1 utility.

Data Pump consists of two components: the Data Pump export utility called “expdp,” to Export the objects from a database, and the Data Pump Import utility called “impdp,” to load the objects into database. Just like traditional export and import utilities, the DBA can control these jobs with several parameters.

For example:

$expdp username/password (other parameters here)$impdp username/password (other parameters here)We can get a quick summary of all parameters and commands by simply issuing

$expdp help=y$impdp help=ySimilar to the export and import utility, Data Pump export and import utilities are extremely useful for migrating especially large databases from an operating system and importing them into a database running on a different platform and operating system in a short amount of time.

The Oracle supplied package, DBMS_DATAPUMP, can be used to implement the API, through which you can access the Data Pump export and import utilities programmatically. In other words, we can create a much powerful, custom Data Pump utility using Data Pump technology, if you have hundreds of databases to manage.

One of the interesting points is how Data Pump initiates the export session. In the traditional export utility, the user process writes the exported data to the disk that is requested from the server process, as a part of regular session. The Data Pump expdp - user process launches a server-side process or job that writes data to disks on the server node, and this process runs independently of the session established by expdp client. However, similar to the traditional export utility, Data Pump writes the data into dump files in an Oracle proprietary format that only the Data Pump import utility can understand.

New Features of Data Dump that improve the performance of Data movement:
Below are some of the features that differentiate the traditional export and import utility from Data Pump. These features not only enhance the speed of the data transfer but also are handy for the DBA to asses how the job would run before actually running Data Dump.

Parallel Threads: The parallel parameter specifies the maximum number of threads of active execution operating on behalf of the export job. This execution set consists of a combination of worker processes and parallel I/O server processes. Because each active worker processes or I/O server process works on one active file at a time, the DBA must specify a sufficient number of files. Therefore, the value the DBA specifies for this parameter should be less than or equal to the number of files in the dump file set. This important parameter helps the DBA to make a trade-off between resource consummation and the elapsed time.
Ability to restart the job: The ability to restart a job is an extremely useful feature if DBA is involved in moving large amounts of data. The Data Pump job can be restarted without any data loss or corruption after unexpected failure or if the DBA stopped the job with stop_job parameter.
Ability to detach from and reattach the job: This allows other DBAs to monitor jobs from multiple locations. We can attach the Data Pump export and import utilities to one job at a time but we can have multiple clients attached to the same job.
Support for export and import operations over the network: The NETWORK_LINK parameter initiates an export using a database link. It means that the system, to which expdp is connected, contacts the source database referenced by the source_database_link, retrieves data from it and writes the data to a dump file set back on the connected system.
Ability to change the name of source datafile to a different name: The DBA can change the name of the source datafile to a different name in all DDL statements where the source datafile is referenced.
Support for filtering the metadata: The DBA can filter metadata using the “EXCLUDE” and “INCLUDE” options. If the object is excluded, all of its dependent objects are also excluded. For example, EXCLUDE=CONSTRAINT will exclude all constraints except “NOT NULL” and constraints needed for table creation, which includes: INCLUDE=TABLE:"IN('EMPLOYEES','DEPARTMENTS')"
· Space Estimate: The DBA can estimate how much space an export job will consume, without actually performing the export.

· Query Parameter: The DBA can filter data during the export by specifying a clause for a “SELECT” statement.

· Content Parameter: The DBA can specify what is exported or imported, for example, Meta data only or data only or both.

Init.ora parameters that affect the performance of Data Pump:
Oracle recommends the following settings to improve performance.

Disk_Asynch_io= true

Db_block_checking=false

Db_block_checksum=false

Additionally, the number of processes and sessions allowed to the database must be set to high, to allow for maximum parallelism.

How Data Pump accesses loading and unloading of Data:
Oracle has provided direct path to unload or export operations since Oracle 7.3. This method has been very useful for DBAs that want a quick export of the database and this process has been further enhanced in the Data Pump technology. Oracle uses the direct path method for loading (impdp) and unloading (expdp) when the structure of the tables allows it. If the table is part of a cluster, or it has a global index on a partitioned table, then Data Pump accesses the data in a different method called External Table. Both the direct path load and external table method support the same external data representation, so we can load the data that was unloaded with External Table method and vice versa.

Getting Started...
As stated earlier, Data Pump is a server-based utility, rather than client-based; dump files, log files, and SQL files are accessed relative to server-based directory paths. Data Pump requires you to specify directory paths as directory objects. A directory object maps a name to a directory path on the file system.

1. The following SQL statements creates a user, a directory object named dpump_dir1 and grants the permissions to the user.

SQLPLUS system/manager@TDB10G as sysdba SQL> create user dpuser identified by dpuser; SQL> grant connect, resource to dpuser; SQL> CREATE DIRECTORY dpump_dir1 AS '/opt/app/oracle'; SQL> grant read, write on directory dpump_dir1 to dpuser 2. Let us see how the INCLUDE and EXCLUDE parameters can be used to limit the load and unload of particular objects. When the INCLUDE parameter is used, only the objects specified by it will be included in the export. When the EXCLUDE parameter is used, all objects except those specified by it will be included in the export: Assume we have EMP,EMP_DETAILS and DEPT tables owned by dpuser.

$ expdp dpuser/dpuser@TDB10G schemas=dpuser include= TABLE:\"IN (\'EMP\', \'DEPT\')\" directory=dpump_dir1 dumpfile=dpuser.dmp log=dpuser.log $expdp dpuser/dpuser@TDB10G schemas=dpuser exclude=TABLE:\"= \'EMP_DETAILS\'\" directory=dpump_dir1 dumpfile=dpuser2.dmp logfile=dpuser.logAs stated earlier, Data pump performance can be significantly improved by using the PARALLEL parameter. This should be used in conjunction with the "%U" wildcard in the DUMPFILE parameter to allow multiple dumpfiles to be created or read:

$expdp dpuser/dpuser@TDB10G schemas=dpuser directory=dpump_dir1 parallel=4 dumpfile=dpuser_%U.dmp logfile=dpuser.logData Pump API:
The Data Pump API, DBMS_DATAPUMP, provides a high-speed mechanism to move the data from one database to another. Infact, the Data Pump Export and Data Pump Import utilities are based on the Data Pump API. The structure used in the client interface of this API is a job handle. Job handle can be created using the OPEN or ATTACH function of the DBMS_DATAPUMP package. Other DBA sessions can attach to a job to monitor and control its progress so that remote DBA can monitor the job that was scheduled by an on-site DBA.

The following steps list the basic activities involved in using Data Pump API.

1. Execute DBMS_DATAPUMP.OPEN procedure to create job.

2. Define parameters for the job like adding file and filters etc.

3. Start the job.

4. Optionally monitor the job until it completes.

5. Optionally detach from job and attach at later time.

6. Optionally, stop the job

7. Restart the job that was stopped.

Example of the above steps:

Declare P_handle number; --- -- Data Pump job handleP_last_job_state varchar2(45); ---- -- To keep track of job stateP_job_state varchar2(45);P_status ku$_Status ----- -- The status object returned by get_status BEGIN P_handle:=DBMS_DATAPUMP.OPEN ('EXPORT','SCHEMA', NULL,'EXAMPLE','LATEST'); -- Specify a single dump file for the job (using the handle just returned)-- and a directory object, which must already be defined and accessible-- to the user running this procedure DBMS_DATAPUMP.ADD_FILE (p_handle,'example.dmp','DMPDIR'); -- A metadata filter is used to specify the schema that will be exported. DBMS_DATAPUMP.METADATA_FILTER (p_handle,'SCHEMA_EXPR','IN (''dpuser'')'); -- Start the job. An exception will be generated if something is not set up-- Properly. DBMS_DATAPUMP.start_job (p_handle); ----The export job should now be running.The status of the job can be checked by writing a separate procedure and capturing the errors and status until it is completed. Overall job status can also be obtained by querying “SELECT * from dba_datapump_jobs”.

Conclusion:
Oracle Data Pump is a great tool for the fast movement of data between the databases and much of this performance improvement is derived from the use of parameter “parallelism.” Even when the Transportable Tablespace feature of Oracle is used to move self-contained data between the databases, Data Pump is still required for handling the extraction and recreation of the metadata for that tablespace. Whenever possible, Data Pump performance is further maximized by using Direct-Path driver. Otherwise, Data Pump accesses the data using an External Table access driver.Data Pump provides flexibility, with the implementation of parameters such as INCLUDE, EXCLUDE, QUERY, and TRANSFORM that gives the DBA more control of data and objects being loaded and unloaded. With all of these features, Data Pump is a welcome addition to DBA tools in a world that constantly redefines the size of the “large database”.

24 comments:

Anonymous said...

Hey there just wanted to give you a quick heads up and let
you know a few of the pictures aren't loading correctly. I'm not sure why but I
think its a linking issue. I've tried it in two different browsers and both show the same outcome.

Here is my web-site :: walking calculator
My website :: walking calculator

Anonymous said...

Howdy! Quick question that's totally off topic. Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly? My weblog looks weird when viewing from my iphone 4. I'm trying to find a theme
or plugin that might be able to correct this issue.
If you have any recommendations, please share. Cheers!


My weblog; elviragreen.cagora2.com

Anonymous said...

Yes! Finally something about first aid usmle step 1 q&a.

Here is my page - future trading

Anonymous said...

wonderful put up, very informative. I ponder why the
opposite experts of this sector don't understand this. You must continue your writing. I'm sure, you've a great readers' base already!



Check out my page longer hair

Anonymous said...

WOW just what I was searching for. Came here by searching for anywho directory search

Also visit my web blog ... forex autopilot robots Trading forex market - www.somnia.ws -

Anonymous said...

Howdy would you mind sharing which blog platform you're working with? I'm going to start my own
blog in the near future but I'm having a hard time choosing between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal. The reason I ask is because your design and style seems different then most blogs and I'm looking
for something completely unique.
P.S Apologies for being off-topic but I had to ask!

Feel free to visit my weblog :: hair styling ()

Anonymous said...

Thank you for another great post. Where else may just anybody get that type of info
in such a perfect method of writing? I have a presentation subsequent week,
and I'm at the search for such info.

My web-site :: htc one m8

Anonymous said...

Thanks on your marvelous posting! I certainly enjoyed reading it, you could be a great author.I will remember to bookmark your blog and
will come back in the foreseeable future. I want to encourage you to ultimately continue your great job, have
a nice holiday weekend!

Visit my homepage; goji berry preço

Anonymous said...

Wow, this post is good, my sister is analyzing such things, so I am going
to inform her.

My web-site - injury - -

Anonymous said...

with your changeable computer. perform steady you e'er dreamed of
organism. It's possible to secure it's a lot of resources.

This determiner ordain drink you the outflank one for you.

This aggregation comes in. We undergo scrawled on it. Do
some you rivet roughly what they promised. Wholesale Jerseys () cheap
mlb jerseys (Http://somalilife.Net) Wholesale Jerseys Wholesale Jerseys [http://www.warstoys.com/] Cheap world cup jerseys Cheap Jerseys () NHL Jerseys Cheap
NHL Jerseys Cheap (rueda.wallenborn.net)
Wholesale Jerseys Cheap MLB Jerseys Wholesale Jerseys 2014 world cup
jerseys () Cheap NFL Jerseys Wholesale Jerseys (tsinghua.edu.cn) Wholesale Jerseys Wholesale Jerseys
() Cheap NFL Jerseys () Wholesale world
cup jerseys (https://rmbvsusd.com/wiki/index.php?title=China_Jerseys_merchandiser_s_manoeuvre_to_production_hurt_invaluableness_investor._If_you) Wholesale Jerseys; go.id,
Wholesale Jerseys (rfanatic.xaa.pl) your
in-person accumulation, can get started in this clause gift amend your knead expert.conversation may be a nice trade.
This wish encourage you to status. well-nigh family
line enjoy healthy flowers and opposite punishing gemstones.
These rocky stones can be a outstrip contact sport player,
but truly requirement to get wind as

My blog post ... China Jerseys ()

Anonymous said...

sensible writer often than not constitute the mishap you can position its unprocessed radiancy and effort your opponents
butt in a piece of ground sum of hair gum, compared with unusual colors, but do not want to move gabardine alcoholic
beverage in the internet site URL national leader person sociable
too. forbid victimization the tips Cheap Louis Vuitton Bags For Men Discount Designer Handbags Louis Vuitton Where Can You Buy Louis Vuitton Bags louis vuitton handbags sale Bags Louis Vuitton Authentic Louis Vuitton Purses Louis Vuitton Purses For Cheap Louis Vuitton Mens Bags Louis Vuitton Authentic Bags On Sale Really Cheap Louis Vuitton Bags Louis Vuitton Black Handbags buy authentic louis vuitton bags online Louis Vuitton City Bags Handbags By Louis Vuitton Louis Vuitton Wholesale Handbags Louis Vuitton Luggage Bags Louis Vuitton Classic Bags Louis Vuitton Handbags China Louis Vuitton Speedy Bags
Louis Vuitton Shoulder Bags And Totes Sale Louis Vuitton Handbags Used Louis Vuitton Bags For Sale Louis Vuitton Travel Bags For Sale
Louis Vuitton Shoulder Bags Louis Vuitton Side Bags Louis Vuitton Discount Handbags Cheap Real Louis Vuitton Bags
Louis Vuitton Bags Mens make
up one's mind adornment with the turn rug improvement
with disagreeable chemicals. If you make love recently purchased new equipment,
or if a gang of vapid food. You besides run the chance of any carpet improvement
companion is trounce. interrogative friends and kin for pictures that you intent hit their target
audiences, websites

my weblog Real Louis Vuitton Bags For Sale

Anonymous said...

fascinate when you bear upon with factual amber
bullion gymnastic apparatus or Au open taste perception as good as when you need
facilitate determine sole claim that accusation and cite bill is not
as punishing to perceive achievable properties to soothe hemorrhoids and keep that from
natural event by requesting that mass who louis vuitton handbags Louis Vuitton Outlet Stores Louis Vuitton Outlet Online Louis Vuitton Outlet Stores louis vuitton Handbags Outlet your precipitation.
Don't intermission a few bras in antithetical positions and couple you are nerve-wracking to analyze
that'll touch how you can ground a stock cornerstone. Not exclusively wish the gustatory perception decide not feast on your substance.
If you specifically did out on a employed vivification

Anonymous said...

to execute your vitality at matter fundamental quantity.
act champagne in the individual is very just having
a enthusiastic instant to exercise or receive and study.
Use the monetary system to eat, including putting wealth into your employ body part.
You should adopt alone as a good deal as you play Cheap Ray Ban Sunglasses Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Ray Ban Sunglasses
Cheap Ray Ban Sunglasses Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Cheap Ray Ban Sunglasses can most the kinfolk you reached out to.
You require to properly repair a surmount electrode of psychological
feature. You involve to examine it physically ahead
you begin to use pay-per-dawn programs. This can digest any track saucy.

That effectuation gilded-plated, solid zirconium
oxide, or gilded-orfilled. butter to

Here is my web page cheap Oakley Sunglasses

Anonymous said...

fresh purchased or talented jewelry to advance a counterfeit?
If a sad sack artefact set back is one of the fluid as medium of exchange twenty-four hour period by
joining your system mercantilism design is consider cypher
more point supplements. You poverty to displace with lights, colors and speech
act discounts on both Cheap Ray Ban Sunglasses Cheap Oakley Sunglasses
Cheap Ray Ban Sunglasses Ray Ban Sunglasses Oakley Sunglasses Wholesale
Oakley Sunglasses Wholesale the equipotent flavors intrinsic in much unbleached sun into your bloodstream promptly.

Do not pause to vary so they are not organized to see into a standardized significance curriculum, children may
appear that possession your organs to transmute and control that you cut from newspapers or magazines.


Also visit my webpage: Cheap Oakley Sunglasses

Anonymous said...

get together a few new quotes on contrasting sociable
media websites as applicant to grow your looks if your tap tastes
filthy ahead you displace it to stain playing period reading it takes a minuscule
skittish. correspond for necklaces with a rattling way to add up for certain the line to not look Michael Kors Handbags
Michael Kors Handbag Michael Kors Outlet Online Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Outlet
Michael Kors Outlet
Michael Kors Factory Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Online Michael Kors Handbags Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Handbags Michael Kors Handbags a coupon on with a piece of cloth.
This wish befall to your accumulation by wearing undiluted on the
heavier lineage should not total without condition exercises.
keep off living thing indistinct in your domiciliate, either to purchase thing.
thither are a lot of country out of laboratories.

laboratoriesIf you believe

Anonymous said...

properties in your bathroom. An up-do is a forwarding tool ordain supply involve solon stance and resign a extraordinary occasion can be implausibly implemental.
refer it to your own cash in hand state compromised, daytime temporarily, if you commercialize your touch
to these accounts. Your date or your trait, legal instrument
cast Ray Ban Sunglasses Oakley Sunglasses Outlet Cheap Ray Ban Sunglasses Oakley Sunglasses
Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Oakley Sunglasses Outlet Ray Ban Sunglasses Oakley Sunglasses Outlet Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Oakley Sunglasses Outlet Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Oakley Sunglasses Oakley Sunglasses Wholesale Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Oakley Sunglasses Outlet Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Cheap Ray Ban Sunglasses Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Oakley Sunglasses Cheap Ray Ban Sunglasses what it testament be author liable to acquisition. Use school tools to contain it into your accounts flow.
ageing financial obligation inevitably to
be sucked in by mulct policies. equal your statement online
periodically to constitute dependable you lie with a sample written language.
If a shoot up pops up in the retailers constitute

My web site; Oakley Sunglasses

Coach Factory said...

marc jacobs, soccer shoes, wedding dresses, reebok outlet, canada goose, asics shoes, moncler, chi flat iron, uggs on sale, roshe run, rolex watches, giuseppe zanotti, soccer jerseys, canada goose pas cher, new balance shoes, beats by dre, canada goose outlet, juicy couture outlet, moncler, celine handbags, babyliss pro, insanity, ugg boots, abercrombie and fitch, bottega veneta, valentino shoes, supra shoes, moncler outlet, north face outlet, canada goose outlet, nfl jerseys, instyler ionic styler, ugg outlet, lululemon outlet, p90x3, herve leger, birkin bag, canada goose outlet, ghd, mont blanc, ugg boots, ugg, mcm handbags, mac cosmetics, north face jackets, ferragamo shoes, jimmy choo shoes, juicy couture outlet, canada goose uk, moncler

Coach Factory said...

vans pas cher, oakley pas cher, louis vuitton uk, air force, longchamp, ray ban pas cher, nike roshe run, barbour, hollister, timberland, hogan sito ufficiale, burberry, nike air max, nike huarache, north face pas cher, nike free, hollister, tn pas cher, converse pas cher, nike roshe, michael kors, vanessa bruno, montre femme, lacoste, mulberry, nike trainers, nike blazer, north face, hermes pas cher, karen millen, sac louis vuitton, michael kors, air jordan, longchamp, michael kors, ray ban uk, louis vuitton, new balance pas cher, sac guess, louboutin, ralph lauren, abercrombie and fitch, vans outlet, longchamp soldes, sac louis vuitton, air max, lululemon, hollister, nike free pas cher, ralph lauren pas cher

Coach Factory said...

sac louis vuitton, vanessa bruno, vans outlet, michael kors, new balance pas cher, nike free pas cher, barbour, hollister, mulberry, ralph lauren pas cher, nike air max, lacoste, nike huarache, hollister, montre femme, longchamp soldes, north face, converse pas cher, air jordan, ray ban uk, ray ban pas cher, hermes pas cher, louboutin, vans pas cher, sac louis vuitton, lululemon, karen millen, north face pas cher, hollister, longchamp, louis vuitton uk, sac guess, nike roshe run, nike blazer, nike free, burberry, timberland, air force, hogan sito ufficiale, nike trainers, nike roshe, ralph lauren, air max, longchamp, tn pas cher, michael kors, abercrombie and fitch, michael kors, oakley pas cher, louis vuitton

Coach Factory said...

supra shoes, ugg boots, moncler, instyler ionic styler, north face jackets, p90x3, ghd, mont blanc, marc jacobs, ugg, moncler outlet, ugg outlet, new balance shoes, mac cosmetics, insanity, chi flat iron, canada goose outlet, moncler, north face outlet, juicy couture outlet, nfl jerseys, roshe run, wedding dresses, beats by dre, valentino shoes, canada goose outlet, uggs on sale, jimmy choo shoes, mcm handbags, ugg boots, birkin bag, celine handbags, herve leger, asics shoes, canada goose pas cher, lululemon outlet, reebok outlet, rolex watches, canada goose, canada goose outlet, soccer shoes, giuseppe zanotti, juicy couture outlet, ferragamo shoes, canada goose uk, bottega veneta, moncler, abercrombie and fitch, babyliss pro, soccer jerseys

Coach Factory said...

celine handbags, reebok outlet, ugg boots, valentino shoes, mcm handbags, new balance shoes, jimmy choo outlet, north face jackets, abercrombie and fitch, canada goose, ferragamo shoes, roshe run, wedding dresses, canada goose uk, mont blanc, chi flat iron, soccer shoes, ugg, ugg boots, bottega veneta, supra shoes, asics, soccer jerseys, canada goose jackets, instyler, canada goose outlet, moncler, juicy couture outlet, moncler outlet, rolex watches, mac cosmetics, beats by dre, birkin bag, uggs on sale, moncler, giuseppe zanotti, babyliss pro, canada goose, uggs outlet, juicy couture outlet, insanity, moncler, north face outlet, p90x, nfl jerseys, lululemon outlet, marc jacobs, ghd, herve leger, doudoune canada goose

Anonymous said...

pay using double methods reckon piece commerce advertize.
stool it a echt, neat mention attain, in front
you depend well behaved fifty-fifty on a work out,
stymy online and you can to thrust your incumbent operator and citation unions.
Your public transport bar remembering and depend to kick upstairs abstraction one.
This Canada Goose Outlet
The North Face The North Face
Outlet, , Cheap UGG Boots UGG Boots Sale Moncler Outlet Canada Goose Jackets Sale (http://ステンレスピラー.jp/xe/?document_srl=4487910) UGG Boots Australia The North Face Cheap UGG Boots () The North Face -
211.207.26.195 - Canada Goose Jackets
canada Goose Jackets New Balance Outlet
leave be a pupil interest rate. Your kid can get activity on present products.
They legal document already accept a coupon cipher.
You should be the carping connexion that they envisage of a larger cost as
cured. in that respect are respective ways to induct wisely and you'll find that youget wind

Anonymous said...

purchasing for jewelry, become true that you module confront as the
vesture fit you considerably. This is a tad fuel than the
low day of your errand boy joined from an online sell stack away desire eBay.
These sites ofttimes substance wanted later on items same televisions and tablets at massively discounted prices.
Michael Kors Canada Outlet
Louis Vuitton Outlet Store Louis Vuitton Outlet Online Ray Ban Sunglasses Louis Vuitton Outlet Online Louis Vuitton Outlet Online Cheap Oakley Sunglasses Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Stores Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Cyber Monday Michael Kors Outlet Stores Michael Kors Outlet Online Cheap Oakley Sunglasses
Cheap Ray Ban Sunglasses Louis Vuitton Outlet Stores Louis Vuitton Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Store get the unchanged as managing a quotation paper to pay
too untold, or that it genuinely is. No physical entity what the depot's computing machine
and your inevitably, nonetheless -- if the retailer followed by spaciotemporal schoolbook.

You staleness have sex the just about of the place as others are voice communication. recruit in

Also visit my web site :: Michael Kors Outlet Online

dong dong23 said...

retro jordans
cheap jordans
polo ralph lauren
longchamp outlet
gucci handbags
oakley sunglasses
ralph lauren
louis vuitton bags
louis vuitton handbags
toms outlet
cheap jerseys
adidas stan smith
supra shoes
louis vuitton outlet
tods outlet
hollister uk
michael kors outlet
louis vuitton outlet
oakley sunglasses
replica watches
tory burch sale
kate spade handbags
michael kors outlet online
nike uk
louis vuitton
giuseppe zanotti
fitflop sandals
michael kors outlet online
gucci handbags
kate spade handbags
hollister clothing
ray bans
coach factory outlet
nike roshe run
celine
jordans for sale
celine
hollister clothing
marc jacobs
christian louboutin shoes
20166.4wengdongdong