Thursday, October 11, 2007

TX Transaction locks - Example wait scenarios

Subject: TX Transaction locks - Example wait scenarios
Doc ID: Note:62354.1 Type: TROUBLESHOOTING
Last Revision Date: 23-SEP-2005 Status: PUBLISHED


Introduction
~~~~~~~~~~~~
This short article gives examples of TX locks and the waits which can
occur in various circumstances. Often such waits will go unnoticed unless
they are of a long duration or when they trigger a deadlock scenario (which
raises an ORA-60 error).

The examples here demonstrate fundamental locking scenarios which should
be understood by application developers and DBA's alike.


Useful SQL statements
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
If you encounter a lock related hang scenario the following SQL statements
can be used to help isolate the waiters and blockers:

Show all sessions waiting for any lock:

select event,p1,p2,p3 from v$session_wait
where wait_time=0 and event='enqueue';

Show sessions waiting for a TX lock:

select * from v$lock where type='TX' and request>0;

Show sessions holding a TX lock:

select * from v$lock where type='TX' and lmode>0;


What is a TX lock ?
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
A TX lock is acquired when a transaction initiates its first change and is
held until the transaction does a COMMIT or ROLLBACK. It is used mainly as
a queuing mechanism so that other sessions can wait for the transaction to
complete. The lock name (ID1 and ID2) of the TX lock reflect the transaction
ID of the active transaction.


Example Tables
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
The lock waits which can occur are demonstrated using the following
tables. Connect as SCOTT/TIGER or some dummy user to set up the test
environment using the following SQL:

DROP TABLE tx_eg;
CREATE TABLE tx_eg ( num number, txt varchar2(10), sex varchar2(10) )
INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 1;
INSERT into tx_eg VALUES ( 1, 'First','FEMALE' );
INSERT into tx_eg VALUES ( 2, 'Second','MALE' );
INSERT into tx_eg VALUES ( 3, 'Third','MALE' );
INSERT into tx_eg VALUES ( 4, 'Fourth','MALE' );
INSERT into tx_eg VALUES ( 5, 'Fifth','MALE' );
COMMIT;

In the examples below three sessions are required:

Ses#1 indicates the TX_EG table owners first session
Ses#2 indicates the TX_EG table owners second session
DBA indicates a SYSDBA user with access to


The examples covered below include:

Waits due to Row being locked by an active Transaction
Waits due to Unique or Primary Key Constraint enforcement
Waits due to Insufficient 'ITL' slots in the Block
Waits due to rows being covered by the same BITMAP index fragment


Waits due to Row being locked by an active Transaction
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
When a session updates a row in a table the row is locked by the sessions
transaction. Other users may SELECT that row and will see row as it was
BEFORE the UPDATE occurred. If another session wishes to UPDATE the same
row it has to wait for the first session to commit or rollback. The
second session waits for the first sessions TX lock in EXCLUSIVE mode.

Eg:
Ses#1: update tx_eg set txt='Garbage' where num=1;
Ses#2: update tx_eg set txt='Garbage' where num=1;
DBA: select SID,TYPE,ID1,ID2,LMODE,REQUEST
from v$lock where type='TX';

SID TY ID1 ID2 LMODE REQUEST
---------- -- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
8 TX 131075 597 6 0
10 TX 131075 597 0 6

> This shows SID 10 is waiting for the TX lock held by SID 8 and it
> wants the lock in exclusive mode (as REQUEST=6).

The select below is included to demonstrate that a session waiting
on a lock will show as waiting on an 'enqueue' in V$SESSION_WAIT
and that the values of P1RAW, P2 and P3 indicate the actual lock
being waited for. When using Parallel Server the EVENT will be
'DFS enqueue lock acquisition' rather than 'enqueue'.
This select will be omitted from the following examples.

DBA: select sid,p1raw, p2, p3
from v$session_wait
where wait_time=0 and event='enqueue';

SID P1RAW P2 P3
---------- -------- ---------- ----------
10 54580006 131075 597
> ~~~~ ~~ ~~~~~~ ~~~
> type|mode id1 id2
> T X 6 131075 597


The next select shows the object_id and the exact row that the
session is waiting for. This information is only valid in V$SESSION
when a session is waiting due to a row level lock. The statement
is only valid in Oracle 7.3 onwards. As SID 10 is the waiter above
then this is the session to look at in V$SESSION:

DBA: select ROW_WAIT_OBJ#,
ROW_WAIT_FILE#,ROW_WAIT_BLOCK#,ROW_WAIT_ROW#
from v$session
where sid=10;

ROW_WAIT_O ROW_WAIT_F ROW_WAIT_B ROW_WAIT_R
---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
3058 4 2683 0

> The waiter is waiting for the TX lock in order to lock row 0
> in file 4, block 2683 of object 3058.

Ses#1: rollback;
Ses#2: rollback;


Waits due to Unique or Primary Key Constraint enforcement
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
If a table has a primary key constraint, a unique constraint
or a unique index then the uniqueness of the column/s referenced by
the constraint is enforced by a unique index. If two sessions try to
insert the same key value the second session has to wait to see if an
ORA-0001 should be raised or not.

Eg:
Ses#1: ALTER TABLE tx_eg ADD CONSTRAINT tx_eg_pk PRIMARY KEY( num );
Ses#1: insert into tx_eg values (10,'New','MALE');
Ses#2: insert into tx_eg values (10,'OtherNew',null);
DBA: select SID,TYPE,ID1,ID2,LMODE,REQUEST
from v$lock where type='TX';

SID TY ID1 ID2 LMODE REQUEST
---------- -- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
8 TX 196625 39 6 0
10 TX 262155 65 6 0
10 TX 196625 39 0 4

This shows SID 10 is waiting for the TX lock held by SID 8 and it
wants the lock in share mode (as REQUEST=4). SID 10 holds a TX lock
for its own transaction.

Ses#1: commit;
Ses#2: ORA-00001: unique constraint (SCOTT.TX_EG_PK) violated
Ses#2: rollback;


Waits due to Insufficient 'ITL' slots in a Block
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Oracle keeps note of which rows are locked by which transaction in an area
at the top of each data block known as the 'interested transaction list'.
The number of ITL slots in any block in an object is controlled by
the INITRANS and MAXTRANS attributes. INITRANS is the number of slots
initially created in a block when it is first used, while MAXTRANS places
an upper bound on the number of entries allowed. Each transaction which
wants to modify a block requires a slot in this 'ITL' list in the block.

MAXTRANS places an upper bound on the number of concurrent transactions
which can be active at any single point in time within a block.

INITRANS provides a minimum guaranteed 'per-block' concurrency.

If more than INITRANS but less than MAXTRANS transactions want to be
active concurrently within the same block then the ITL list will be extended
BUT ONLY IF THERE IS SPACE AVAILABLE TO DO SO WITHIN THE BLOCK.

If there is no free 'ITL' then the requesting session will wait on one
of the active transaction locks in mode 4.

Eg: Ses#1: update tx_eg set txt='Garbage' where num=1;
Ses#2: update tx_eg set txt='Different' where num=2;
DBA: select SID,TYPE,ID1,ID2,LMODE,REQUEST
from v$lock where type='TX';

SID TY ID1 ID2 LMODE REQUEST
---------- -- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
8 TX 327688 48 6 0
10 TX 327688 48 0 4

This shows SID 10 is waiting for the TX lock held by SID 8 and it
wants the lock in share mode (as REQUEST=4).

Ses#1: commit;
Ses#2: commit;
Ses#1: ALTER TABLE tx_eg MAXTRANS 2;
Ses#1: update tx_eg set txt='First' where num=1;
Ses#2: update tx_eg set txt='Second' where num=2;

Both rows update as there is space to grow the ITL list to
accommodate both transactions.

Ses#1: commit;
Ses#2: commit;


Waits due to rows being covered by the same BITMAP index fragment
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Bitmap indexes index key values and a range of ROWIDs. Each 'entry'
in a bitmap index can cover many rows in the actual table.
If 2 sessions wish to update rows covered by the same bitmap index
fragment then the second session waits for the first transaction to
either COMMIT or ROLLBACK by waiting for the TX lock in mode 4.

Eg: Ses#1: CREATE Bitmap Index tx_eg_bitmap on tx_eg ( sex );
Ses#1: update tx_eg set sex='FEMALE' where num=3;
Ses#2: update tx_eg set sex='FEMALE' where num=4;
DBA: select SID,TYPE,ID1,ID2,LMODE,REQUEST
from v$lock where type='TX';

SID TY ID1 ID2 LMODE REQUEST
---------- -- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------
8 TX 262151 62 6 0
10 TX 327680 60 6 0
10 TX 262151 62 0 4

This shows SID 10 is waiting for the TX lock held by SID 8 and it
wants the lock in share mode (as REQUEST=4).

Ses#1: commit;
Ses#2: commit;


Other Scenarios
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
There are other wait scenarios which can result in a SHARE mode wait for a TX
lock but these are rare compared to the examples given above.
Eg: If a session wants to read a row locked by a transaction in a PREPARED
state then it will wait on the relevant TX lock in SHARE mode (REQUEST=4).
As a PREPARED transaction should COMMIT , ROLLBACK or go to an in-doubt
state very soon after the prepare this is not generally noticeable..

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